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I. Green Tea
Green tea contains more amount of antioxidants than any drinks or food with the same volume, and is the leaves of Camellia sinensis, undergone minimal oxidation during processing, originated from China. Green tea has been a precious drink in traditional Chinese culture and used exceptional in socialization for more than 4000 thousand years. Because of their health benefits, they have been cultivated for commercial purposes all over the world.
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1. Antidepressant Properties
In the observation of the effects of Green tea consumption and psychological distress of the study of "Green tea consumption is associated with lower psychological distress in a general population: the Ohsaki Cohort 2006 Study" by Atsushi Hozawa, Shinichi Kuriyama, Naoki Nakaya, Kaori Ohmori-Matsuda, Masako Kakizaki, Toshimasa Sone, Masato Nagai, Yumi Sugawara,Akemi Nitta, Yasutake Tomata, Kaijun Niu, and Ichiro Tsuji, researchers found thatThe odds ratio (with 95% CI) of developing psychological distress among respondents who consumed ≥5 cups of green tea/d was 0.80 (0.70, 0.91) compared with those who consumed <1 cup/d and concluded that Green tea consumption was inversely associated with psychological distress even after adjustment for possible confounding factors(1). Others in the investigation of Greentea consumption and the risk of depressive symptoms of the study of "Green teaconsumption is associated with depressive symptoms in the elderly" by Niu K, Hozawa A, Kuriyama S, Ebihara S, Guo H, Nakaya N, Ohmori-Matsuda K, Takahashi H, Masamune Y, Asada M, Sasaki S, Arai H, Awata S, Nagatomi R, Tsuji I., researchers found that the prevalence of mild and severe and severe depressive symptoms was 34.1% and 20.2%, respectively and concluded that a more frequent consumption of green tea was associated with a lower prevalence of depressive symptoms in the community-dwelling older population(1a).
2. External Anogenital Warts
In the investigation of green tea catechins and external anogenital warts of the study of "Efficacy, safety and tolerability of green tea catechins in the treatment of external anogenital warts: a systematic review and meta-analysis" by Tzellos TG, Sardeli C, Lallas A, Papazisis G, Chourdakis M, Kouvelas D., researchers found that the efficacy of Polyphenon 15% and 10%, at least for the primary endpoint, is clearly indicated. Polyphenon E treatment exhibits very low recurrence rates and appears to have a rather favourable safety and tolerability profile(2). Others in the evaluation of Polyphenon E and external anogenital wartsof the study of "Polyphenon E ( amixture of green tea catechins) a new treatment for external anogenital warts' by Tatti S, Stockfleth E, Beutner KR, Tawfik H, Elsasser U, Weyrauch P, Mescheder A.(2a), researchers found thatsevere local signs were more frequent but moderate in the active treatment groups (1.5%, 9.2% and 13.5% for G(Veh), G(10%) and G(15%) groups, respectively) and concluded that polyphenon E ointment is effective and well tolerated in the treatment of External genital warts(EGWs)(2a).
3. Obstructive Sleep Apnea-Related Brain Deficits
In the investigation of "Green Tea Compounds Beat OSA-Related Brain Deficits" by American Thoracic Society (ATS), researchers indicated that GTP-treated rats exposed to IH displayed significantly greater spatial bias for the previous hidden platform position, indicating that GTPs are capable of attenuating IH-induced spatial learning deficits," wrote Dr. Gozal, adding that GTPs "may represent a potential interventional strategy for patients" with sleep-disordered breathing(3).
4. Bad BreathIn the investigation of green tea extract on bad breath of the study of "The effect of green tea extract on the removal of sulfur-containing oral malodor volatiles in vitro and its potential application in chewing gum" by Zeng QC, Wu AZ, Pika J., researchers found that Adding 5% baking soda to greentea extract-containing chewing gum was found to buffer saliva pHs to 8.0 during 10 min of chewing. However, severe discoloration was observed and undesirable bitterness was perceived, most likely due to the polymerization of unencapsulatedgreen tea polyphenols. Therefore, encapsulation of green tea extract is recommended for applications at elevated pHs(4). Others In the evaluation of the effect of green tea and mouth air of the study of "Effect of green tea on volatile sulfur compounds in mouth air" by Lodhia P, Yaegaki K, Khakbaznejad A, Imai T, Sato T, Tanaka T, Murata T, Kamoda T.[19b], researchers wrote that green teawas very effective in reducing oral malodor temporarily because of its disinfectant and deodorant activities, whereas other foods were not effective(4a).
5. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)a. In the determination of Green Tea-EGCG effects in HIV-1of the study of 'Green Tea-EGCG reduces GFAP associated neuronal loss in HIV-1 Tat transgenic mice" by Rrapo E, Zhu Y, Tian J, Hou H, Smith A, Fernandez F, Tan J, Giunta B., researchers found that that EGCG (300mg/kg/day) dramatically reduced astrogliosis as demonstrated by GFAP expression. This was accompanied by a mild reduction in activated microglia by Iba-1 staining and significant reduction in neuronal loss through apoptosis as demonstrated by MAP2 staining and Western blot analysis respectively(5). Others in examination of the effects of EGCG and HIV-1 proteins gp120 of the study of "EGCG mitigates neurotoxicity mediated by HIV-1 proteins gp120 and Tat in the presence of IFN-gamma: role of JAK/STAT1 signaling and implications for HIV-associated dementia" by Giunta B, Obregon D, Hou H, Zeng J, Sun N, Nikolic V, Ehrhart J, Shytle D, Fernandez F, Tan J. researchers found that EGCG treatment of primary neurons from normal mice reduced IFN-gamma-enhanced neurotoxicity of gp120 and Tat by inhibiting JAK/STAT1 pathway activation and found to mitigate the neurotoxic properties of HIV-1 proteins in the presence of IFN-gamma in vivo(5a).
6. Mental Alertness
In the evaluation of drinking green tea brings relaxation of the study of "L-theanine—a unique amino acid of green tea and its relaxation effect in humans" by Lekh Raj Juneja, Djong-Chi Chu, Tsutomu Okubo, Yukiko Nagato, Hidehiko Yokogoshi, researchers found that L-theanine administered intraperitoneally to rats reached the brain within 30 min without any metabolic change. Theanine also acts as a neurotransmitter in the brain and decreased blood pressure significantly in hypertensive rats. In general, animals always generate very weak electric pulses on the surface of the brain, called brain waves(6). Others In the investigation of L-Theanine found abundantly in green tea as anxiety Reducer of the study of "The acute effects of L-theanine in comparison with alprazolam on anticipatoryanxiety in humans" by Lu K, Gray MA, Oliver C, Liley DT, Harrison BJ, Bartholomeusz CF, Phan KL, Nathan PJ., the write wrote that while L-theaninemay have some relaxing effects under resting conditions, neither L-theanine not alprazolam demonstrate any acute anxiolytic effects under conditions of increasedanxiety in the AA model(6a).
7. Gastrointestinal diseases
In the evaluation of different doses of green tea extract and inflammatory bowel disease of the study of "Comparative evaluation of different doses of greentea extract alone and in combination with sulfasalazine in experimentally induced inflammatory bowel disease in rats" by Byrav DS, Medhi B, Vaiphei K, Chakrabarti A, Khanduja KL.(7), researchers showed that green tea alone and in combination with sulfasalazine reduced inflammatory changes induced by tri nitro benzene sulfonic acid in rats(7). Others In the examination of the role of polyphenols in gastrointestinal diseases of the study of "Polyphenols and gastrointestinal diseases" by Dryden GW, Song M, McClain C., researchers erote that Substantial in-vitro and animal studies support the beneficial effects of polyphenols in many gastrointestinal diseases. Well designed multicenter trials in humans, such as those called for in the 2005 National Institutes of Health Requests for Applications for Silymarin Centers, will be critical for defining the safety, appropriate dosing and therapeutic efficacy of such agents(7a).
8. Immune system
In the investigation of the immunomodulatory effects of decaffeinated green teaextract in rain bow of the study of "Immunomodulatory effects of decaffeinatedgreen tea (Camellia sinensis) on the immune system of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)" by Sheikhzadeh N, Nofouzi K, Delazar A, Oushani AK., researchers found that showed that decaffeinated green tea in lower doses of administration could be optimum to enhance the immunity of rainbow trout(8). Others in the assessment of unregulated activity of these receptors could lead to autoimmune diseases and the effects of green tea catechin, epigallocatechin gallate of the study of "Green tea catechin, epigallocatechin gallate, suppresses signaling by the dsRNA innate immune receptor RIG-I." by Ranjith-Kumar CT, Lai Y, Sarisky RT, Cheng Kao C., researchers found that EGCG and its derivatives could have potential therapeutic use as a modulator of RIG-I mediated immune responses by binding RIG-I and inhibits its signaling at low micromolar concentrations in HEK293T cells(8a).
9. Antimicrobial activities
In the investigation of Antimicrobial activities of green of the study of "Antimicrobial activities of tea catechins and theaflavins and tea extracts against Bacillus cereus" by Friedman M, Henika PR, Levin CE, Mandrell RE, Kozukue N., researchers found that flavonoids in green tea has exerted its ability in protective effects against Bacillus cereus(9). Others in the evaluation of green teaextracts (GTEs) and their effects in Antimicrobial activities of the study of "Antimicrobial activities of tapioca starch/decolorized hsian-tsao leaf gum coatings containing green tea extracts in fruit-based salads, romaine hearts and pork slices" by Chiu PE, Lai LS., reserachers found that coatings containing GTEs could successfully reduce the aerobic counting and growth of yeasts/molds by 1 to 2 log cycles in fruit-based salads(9a).
10. Periodontal healthIn the evaluation of Streptococcus mutans count in saliva and plaque, Salivary and plaque pH values, etc. and rinsing with green te of the study of "A pilot study of the role of green tea use on oral health" by Awadalla HI, Ragab MH, Bassuoni MW, Fayed MT, Abbas MO,, researchers found that the effectiveness of local application of green tea as antibacterial and anticariogenic material as it decreases the acidity of the saliva and plaque, so it is a cost-effective caries prevention measures especially in developing countries(10). Others in the observation of green tea polyphenols and its inhibition of the growth and cellular adherence of periodontal pathogens of the study of "Relationship between intake of green tea and periodontal disease" by Kushiyama M, Shimazaki Y, Murakami M, Yamashita Y.. researchers found that there is a modest inverse association between the intake of green tea and periodontal disease(10a).
11. Congitive Activities
In the evaluation of the effect of tea polyphenol (TP) on cognitive and anti-cholinesterase activity of the study of "Effects of green tea polyphenol oncognitive and acetylcholinesterase activities" by Kim HK, Kim M, Kim S, Kim M, Chung JH. researchers found that TP exhibited a dramatic inhibitory effect on acetylcholinesterase activity. This finding suggests that TP might be useful in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease(11). Others in rhe investigation of green teacatechin, induces HO-1 by ARE/Nrf2 pathway in hippocampal neurons in protection of neurons against different models of oxidative damages of the study of "Modulation of Nrf2/ARE pathway by food polyphenols: a nutritional neuroprotective strategy for cognitive and neurodegenerative disorders" by Scapagnini G, Vasto S, Abraham NG, Caruso C, Zella D, Fabio G., researchers found that caffeic acid phenethyl ester and ethyl ferulate, are also able to protect neurons via HO-1 induction. These studies identify a novel class of compounds that could be used for therapeutic purposes as preventive agents against cognitivedecline(11a).
12. Neurodegernative diseases In the investigation of green tea catechins andneurodegenerative diseases of the study of "Targeting multipleneurodegenerative diseases etiologies with multimodal-acting green teacatechins" by Mandel SA, Amit T, Kalfon L, Reznichenko L, Youdim MB., researchers wrote that elaborates on the multimodal activities of green teapolyphenols with emphasis on their recently described neurorescue/neuroregenerative and mitochondrial stabilization actions(12). Others in the assessment of the efficacy of green tea polyphenols in neuroprotective actions of the study of "Cell signaling pathways in the neuroprotective actions of the green tea polyphenol (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate: implications forneurodegenerative diseases" by Mandel S, Weinreb O, Amit T, Youdim MB., researchers wrote that the currently established mechanisms involved in the beneficial health action and emerging studies concerning the putative novel molecular neuroprotective activity of green tea and its major polyphenol (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG)(12a).
In the investigation of theaflavin-enriched green tea extract in association with cholesterol levels of the study of "Cholesterol-lowering effect of a theaflavin-enriched green tea extract: a randomized controlled trial" by Maron DJ, Lu GP, Cai NS, Wu ZG, Li YH, Chen H, Zhu JQ, Jin XJ, Wouters BC, Zhao J., researchers found that The theaflavin-enriched green tea extract is an effective adjunct to a low-saturated-fat diet to reduce LDL-C in hypercholesterolemic adults and is well tolerated(13). Others in the observation of the effect of green tea beverage andgreen tea extract on lipid changes of the study of "Green tea intake lowers fasting serum total and LDL cholesterol in adults: a meta-analysis of 14 randomized controlled trials" by Zheng XX, Xu YL, Li SH, Liu XX, Hui R, Huang XH., researchers found that the administration of green tea beverages or extracts resulted in significant reductions in serum TC and LDL-cholesterol concentrations, but no effect on HDL cholesterol was observed(13a).
In the examination of Osteoporosis and the effects of green tea of the study of "Green tea and bone metabolism' by Shen CL, Yeh JK, Cao JJ, Wang JS., researchers found that , tea and its bioactive components might decrease the risk of fracture by improving bone mineral density and supporting osteoblastic activities while suppressing osteoclastic activities(14). Others in investigation of Epidemiological evidence that has shown an association between tea consumption and the prevention of bone loss of the study of "Green tea and bone health: Evidence from laboratory studies" by Shen CL, Yeh JK, Cao JJ, Chyu MC, Wang JS., researchers found that there is a possible mechanisms for the osteo-protective effects of green tea bioactive compounds(14a)
In the investigation of Green tea and Arthritis of the study of "Green teapolyphenol epigallocatechin 3-gallate in arthritis" by Ahmed S., researcher indicated that although these findings provide scientific evidence of the anti-rheumatic activity of EGCG, further preclinical studies are warranted before phase clinical trials could be initiated with confidence for patients with joint diseases(15). Others in the investigation of the efficacy of green tea extract (GTE) in rat adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA) of the study of "Green tea extract inhibits chemokine production, but up-regulates chemokine receptor expression, inrheumatoid arthritis synovial fibroblasts and rat adjuvant-induced arthritis" by Marotte H, Ruth JH, Campbell PL, Koch AE, Ahmed S., researchers found that chemokine receptor overexpression with reduced chemokine production by GTE may be one potential mechanism to limit the overall inflammation and joint destruction in RA(15a).
16. Stroke In the investigation of investigate the effects of green tea polyphenols (GTPs) on the permeability of blood-brain barrier (BBB) of the study of "Effects ofgreen tea polyphenols on caveolin-1 of microvessel fragments in rats with cerebral ischemia" by Zhang S, Liu Y, Zhao Z, Xue Y., researchers found that that GTPs can decrease the elevated BBB permeability in the ischemic region, and the protective effects for cerebral injury may be related to the reduced expression of caveolin-1 and phosphorylated ERK1/2(16). Others in the examination of Greentea polyphenol (-)-epigallocatechin gallate effects in neurological disorders including cerebral ischemia of the study of "Green tea polyphenol (-)-epigallocatechin gallate reduces matrix metalloproteinase-9 activity following transient focal cerebral ischemia" by Park JW, Hong JS, Lee KS, Kim HY, Lee JJ, Lee SR.[6b], researchers found that EGCG, a green teapolyphenol, may reduce up-regulation of MMP-9 activity and neuronal damage following transient focal cerebral ischemia. In addition to its antioxidant effect, MMP-9 inhibition might be a possible mechanism potentially involved in the neuroprotective effect of a green tea polyphenol, EGCG(16a).
17. Antioxidant Activity
In the investigation of l-Theanine is a unique amino acid in green tea effects on ethanol-induced liver injury of the study of "l-Theanine prevents alcoholic liver injury through enhancing the antioxidant capability of hepatocytes" by Li G, Ye Y, Kang J, Yao X, Zhang Y, Jiang W, Gao M, Dai Y, Xin Y, Wang Q, Yin Z, Luo L. researchers found that l-theanine significantly inhibited ethanol-induced reduction of mouse antioxidant capability which included the activities of SOD, CAT and GR, and level of GSH. These results indicated that l-theanine prevented ethanol-induced liver injury through enhancing hepatocyte antioxidant abilities(17). Others in the determination of Green and black tea polyphenols and their strongantioxidant activity of the study of "Bioavailability and antioxidant activity of teaflavanols after consumption of green tea, black tea, or a green tea extract supplement" by Henning SM, Niu Y, Lee NH, Thames GD, Minutti RR, Wang H, Go VL, Heber D.[5b], researchers concluded that green tea extract supplements retain the beneficial effects of green and black tea and may be used in future chemoprevention studies to provide a large dose of tea polyphenols without the side effects of caffeine associated with green and black tea beverages(17a).
18. Diabetes In the assesesment of the effect of green tea (GT) on diabetes-induced retinal oxidative stress and proinflammatory parameters in rats of the study of "Green Tea Prevents Hyperglycemia-Induced Retinal Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats" by Kumar B, Gupta SK, Nag TC, Srivastava S, Saxena R., researchers found that the beneficial effects of (GT) green tea suggest its potential role in the prevention and treatment of diabetic retinopathy in human subjects(18). Others in the evaluation of AbstractTea (Camellia sinensis) effects in type II diabetes management of the study of "Anti-Hyperglycemia Properties of Tea (Camellia sinensis) Bioactives Using In Vitro Assay Models and Influence of Extraction Time" by.Ankolekar C, Terry T, Johnson K, Johnson D, Barbosa AC, Shetty K, researchers wrote that tea offers an attractive potential strategy to regulate postprandial hyperglycemia toward an overall dietary support for type 2 diabetes management(18a).
19. Weight Loss
In the meta-analysis whether green tea indeed has a function in body weightregulation of the study of "The effects of green tea on weight loss and weightmaintenance: a meta-analysis" by Hursel R, Viechtbauer W, Westerterp-Plantenga MS., researchers found that Catechins or an epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG)-caffeine mixture have a small positive effect on WL(weight loss) and WM(weight management) and suggested that habitual caffeine intake and ethnicity may be moderators, as they may influence the effect of catechins(19). Others in the investigation of the effect of a green tea-caffeine mixture on weightmaintenance(VM) after body weight loss in moderately obese subjects in relation to habitual caffeine intake of the study of " Body weight loss and weightmaintenance in relation to habitual caffeine intake and green teasupplementation" by Westerterp-Plantenga MS, Lejeune MP, Kovacs EM., researchers filed the conclusion that high caffeine intake was associated withweight loss through thermogenesis and fat oxidation and with suppressed leptin in women. In habitual low caffeine consumers, the green tea-caffeine mixture improved WM, partly through thermogenesis and fat oxidation(19a).
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A. Quoted from the world most healthy foods