Thursday, June 30, 2016

Most Common Diseases of 50 Plus - Upper gastrointestinal disorders: Upper gastrointestinal bleeding - The Prevention

Kyle J. Norton(Scholar, Master of Nutrients), all right reserved.
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
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Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.

           Upper gastrointestinal (GI) diseases

The prevalence of upper gastrointestinal (GI) diseases is increasing in subjects aged 65 years and over. Pathophysiological changes in esophageal functions that occur with aging may, at least in part, be responsible for the high prevalence of
1. Gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) in old age.

2. The incidence of gastric and duodenal ulcers and their bleeding complications is increasing in old-aged populations worldwide.

3. H. pylori infection in elderly patients with H. pylori-associated peptic ulcer disease and severe chronic gastritis.

4. Almost 40% of GU and 25% of DU in the elderly patients are associated with the use of NSAID(1) and/or aspirin(2).(a)

                Upper gastrointestinal bleeding 

Upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) is defined as hemorrhaging derived from a source proximal to the ligament of Treitz. It is life threatening and considered as medical emergency, which is followed by high mortality rate, ranging from 6 to 15% in spite of modern diagnostic methods and treatment.

                         The Prevention

1. Reduce stress
Stress-damage of upper gastro-intestinal tract (GIT) mucous membrane and gastro-intestinal hemorrhage (GIH)(17).
2. Cardiac surgery
GI bleeding events occurred approximately 10 days after cardiac surgery in patients with a complicated postoperative course. Improving the heart function is the best way to reduced risk of Upper gastrointestinal bleeding(18).
3. Drugs, alcohol and smoking
Chronic moderate alcohol consumption by itself does not seem to increase the liability to peptic ulceration. With highly concentrated alcoholic beverages, gastric bleeding from acute lesions may, however, be occasionally precipitated under certain circumstances, such as when unbuffered ASA is taken concomitantly. Smoking of cigarettes is associated, and perhaps causally related, with an increased incidence of gastric and duodenal ulcerations, impaired ulcer healing, and more frequent ulcer recurrences(19).
4. Avoid prolonged period intake of aspirin and medication which can induce Upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB), such as Ibuprofen (Motrin, Advil)Naproxen (Anaprox, Naprosyn, Aleve)Ketoprofen (Orudis).
5. No extreme exercise
Gastrointestinal (GI) complaints are common among athletes with rates in the range of 30% to 70%. Both the intensity of sport and the type of sporting activity have been shown to be contributing factors in the development of GI symptoms. Three important factors have been postulated as contributing to the pathophysiology of GI complaints in athletes: mechanical forces, altered GI blood flow, and neuroendocrine changes. As a result of those factors, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), nausea, vomiting, gastritis, peptic ulcers, GI bleeding, or exercise-related transient abdominal pain (ETAP) may develop(20).

6. Etc.

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