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Monday, June 27, 2016

Traditional Chinese Medicine Herbal Therapy - Popular Chinese Herbs - Dan Shen (Radix Salvia miltiorrhizae)

Kyle J. Norton(Scholar and Master of Nutrients, all right reserved)
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
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Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.


    Dan Shen (Radix Salvia miltiorrhizae)


Dan Shen is also known as Red Sage Root. The bitter and slightly cold herb has been used in TCM as antithrombotic, antihypertonic (lowering blood pressure), antimicrobial, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, sedative agent and to treat dysmenorrhea, amenorrhea, palpable tumors, angina,restlessness, insomnia, irritability, etc., by enhancing the functions of heart and liver channels.

Ingredients
1. Cryptotanshinone
2. Hydroxytanshinone,
3. Methyltanshinonate
4. Methylene tanshiquinone
5. Przewatanshinquinone A
6. Przewatanshinquinone B
7. Miltirone
8. Dihydrotanshinone I
9. Tanshinol A
10. Tanshinol B
11. Tanshinol C,
12. Nortanshinone
13. 1, 2, 15, 16-tetrahydrotanshiquinone
14. Danshensuan A, B, C
15. Protocatechuic acid,
16. Protocatechuic aldehyde
17. Etc.

Health Benefits
1. Anti diabetes
In the investigation of the effects of the extract and four tanshinone compounds from the dried root of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge (Labiatae) on the tyrosine phosphorylation of the insulin receptor (IR) beta-subunit and the downstream signaling were examined in Chinese-hamster ovary cells expressing human insulin receptors (CHO/IR cells) as well as in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, found that total extract of Danshen (1-10 microg/ml) and the four tanshinones (10 microM) did not show any activity, but the total extract and the tanshinone I, IIA and 15, 16-dihydrotanshinone I except cryptotanshinone enhanced the activity of insulin (1 nM) on the tyrosine phosphorylation of the IR as well as the activation of the downstream kinases Akt, ERK1/2, and GSK3beta, according to “Insulin-sensitizing activities of tanshinones, diterpene compounds of the root of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge” by Jung SH, Seol HJ, Jeon SJ, Son KH, Lee JR.(1).

 2. Cardiomyogenic differentiation
In the searching for a good inducer agent using for cardiomyogenic differentiation of stem cells, the Human placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hPDMSCs) were isolated and incubated in enriched medium. Fourth passaged cells were treated with 10mg/L dan-shen root for 20 days, found that Approximately 80% of the cells were successfully transdifferentiated into cardiomyocytes. In conclusion, dan-shen root is a good inducer agent used for cardiomyogenic differentiation of hPDMSCs, according to “The effects of dan-shen root on cardiomyogenic differentiation of human placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells” by Li K, Li SZ, Zhang YL, Wang XZ.(2).


3. Cardioprotective effects
In the study of the effect of Salvianolic acid A (Sal A), the water-soluble component from the root of the Salvia miltiorrhiza plant on cell viability, shortening amplitude, necrosis, apoptosis, and the expression levels of Akt, phosphorylated Akt, Bcl-2, Bax, and caspase-3 after 3-hour simulated ischemia and 2- or 6-hour simulated reperfusion in cardiomyocytes, found that Sal A significantly increased phosphorylation of Akt and that this phosphorylation can be partially inhibited by phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt inhibitor. Furthermore, Sal A improved I/R-induced myocardial contractile function and reduced infarct size, according to “Salvianolic acid a demonstrates cardioprotective effects in rat hearts and cardiomyocytes after ischemia/reperfusion injury” by Pan H, Li D, Fang F, Chen D, Qi L, Zhang R, Xu T, Sun H.(3).

4. Reactive oxygen species
In the investigation of the action of salvianolic acid A (SalA), the water-soluble component from the root of the Salvia miltiorrhiza plant on angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced proliferation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and the possible signaling pathways mediating this action, found that SalA inhibits Ang II-induced proliferation of HUVECs via reducing the expression levels of phospho-Src and phospho-Akt (473), thereby attenuating the production of ROS, according to “Salvianolic acid A inhibits angiotensin II-induced proliferation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells by attenuating the production of ROS” byYang LL, Li DY, Zhang YB, Zhu MY, Chen D, Xu TD.(4).

5. Cerebral protection
In the investigation of the effect of Sal A, the water-soluble component from the root of the Salvia miltiorrhiza plant on the leukocyte adhesion rate and the intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression in BMEC injured by hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R), using a rheometer, qRT-PCR, and flow cytometry (FCM), found that Sal A could decrease the expression of ICAM-1 on BMEC on the gene and protein levels. In conclusion, the study demonstrated that the inhibition of granulocyte adherence is one of the targets of Sal A in the treatment of ischemic stroke. Meanwhile, Sal A inhibits of granulocyte adherence by decreasing the expression of ICAM-1 in BMEC, according to “Cerebral protection of salvianolic acid A by the inhibition of granulocyte adherence” by Jiang M, Wang XY, Zhou WY, Li J, Wang J, Guo LP.(5).

6. Anti cancers
In the study of the effect of Salvianolic acid A (1), the water-soluble component from the root of the Salvia miltiorrhiza plant, one of the active components from Salvia miltiorrhiza, on the growth of mouse tumors. S-3-1 (a 2-allyl-3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde, 2) is a synthetic intermediate of a salvianolic acid A derivative with strong inhibitory effects on the growth of cancer cells in vitro, found that 2 might suppress tumor growth partly through enhancement of GJIC and reversion of the transformed phenotypes. The other mechanisms may be that 2 can suppress the overexpression of c-myc oncogene, inhibit the function of Ras oncoprotein, increase the expression of P53 tumor suppressor gene and interrupt P46-associated mitogen-activated pathway other than farnesylation of Ras protein, according to “Inhibition of tumor growth by S-3-1, a synthetic intermediate of salvianolic acid A” by Li HY, Li Y, Yan CH, Li LN, Chen XG.(6).

7. Antioxidants
In the assessment of the antioxidant effects of Water-soluble salvianolic acid A (Sal A), the water-soluble component from the root of the Salvia miltiorrhiza plant and salvianolic acid B (Sal B) isolated and purified from the crude extract of Salvia miltiorrhiza by high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC), found that Sal A and Sal B exhibited high total antioxidant activities, their EC(50) values were 1.35+/-0.00 and 1.43+/-0.01 microg/ml, respectively, according to “Isolation and purification of salvianolic acid A and salvianolic acid B from Salvia miltiorrhiza by high-speed counter-current chromatography and comparison of their antioxidant activity” by Sun Y, Zhu H, Wang J, Liu Z, Bi J.(7).

8. Antiplatelet and antithrombotic effects
In the assessment of the antiplatelet and antithrombotic effects of a newly synthesized SAA, the water-soluble component from the root of the Salvia miltiorrhiza plant with different methods both in vitro and in vivo, found that In vivo, SAA significantly reduced thrombus weight in the model of arterio-venous shunt. Meanwhile, SAA increased plasma cAMP level determined by radioimmunoassay in the same model. Intravenously administrated SAA (2.5-10 mg/kg) inhibited platelet aggregation induced by ADP in a dose-dependent manner, according to “Antiplatelet and antithrombotic activities of salvianolic acid A” by Fan HY, Fu FH, Yang MY, Xu H, Zhang AH, Liu K.(8).

9. Etc.

Side effects
1. The herb alcoholic extract may cause severe itching, stomachache, or reduced appetite
2. Dan shen may interact with other blood thinning medicine such as warfarin, heparin, etc.
3. Consume Dan Shen with Soy or sao products can reduce the effectiveness of the herb
4. Do not use the herb in newborn, children or if you are pregnant or breast feeding without consulting first with the related field specialist
5. Etc.

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Sources
(1) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19200697
(2) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22020077
(3) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21795988
(4) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22101169
(5) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21213402
(6) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12450255
(7) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19237321             



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