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Thursday, June 30, 2016

Traditional Chinese Medicine Herbal Therapy - Popular Chinese Herbs - Di Huang (Radix Rehmanniae)

Kyle J. Norton(Scholar and Master of Nutrients, all right reserved)
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
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Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.


               Di Huang (Radix Rehmanniae)



Di huang can be sheng (raw) or Shu (cooked) and is also known as rehmannia.
A. Sheng di huang
The bitter, sweet, bitter cold herb has been used in TCM as diuretic agent and to enhance heart function (small doses constrict the blood vessels and large doses dilate the blood vessel), decrease blood sugar, etc., as it clears Heat and cools the Blood, nourishes Yin, generates Fluids, cools the Upward-Blazing of Heart Fire, etc., by promoting the functions of heart, kidney, and liver channels.

B. Shu di huang
The bitter, sweet, bitter and warm herb has been used in as diuretic agent and to enhance heart function (small doses constrict the blood vessels and large doses dilate the blood vessel), decrease blood sugar, etc., as it clears Heat and cools the Blood (Sheng) as it nourishes Yin and Blood, tonifies the Essence, strengthens the Marrow, etc., by enhancing the functions of heart, kidney, and liver channels.

Ingredients
1. Iridoids
2. Glycosides
3. β-sitosterol
4. Mannitol
5. Stigmasterol
6. Campesterol
7. Rehmannina
8. Catapol
9. Arginine
10. Etc.


Health Benefits
1. Bone metabolism
In the determination of Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch extracts (RGX) on bone metabolism, found that RGX stimulates the proliferation and activities of osteoblasts, while inhibiting the generation and resorptive activities of osteoclasts. It also shows preventive effects on osteoporotic bone loss induced by an ovariectomy. Although the active substances have not yet been identified, it is believed that the RGX seems to contain active components that have a potential to enhance the bone metabolism in osteoporosis. according to “Effect of Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch extracts on bone metabolism” by Oh KO, Kim SW, Kim JY, Ko SY, Kim HM, Baek JH, Ryoo HM, Kim JK.(1).

2. Hypoglycemic activity
In the investigation of the ethanol precipitate fraction (RG-WP) obtained from the hot water extract from rhizome of Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch. f. hueichingensis Hsiao is mainly composed of pectin-like polysaccharide on hypoglycemic activity in normal and streptozotocin-induced mice, found that Administration of RG-WP to normal mice significantly increased the activities of hepatic glucokinase and glucose-6-phosphatase dehydrogenase, but decreased those of hepatic glucose-6-phosphatase and phosphofructokinase. RG-WP stimulated the secretion of insulin and reduced the glycogen content in the liver of normal mouse, according to “[Hypoglycemic activity of polysaccharide fraction from rhizome of Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch. f. hueichingensis Hsiao and the effect on carbohydrate metabolism in normal mouse liver].[Article in Japanese]” by Kiho T, Watanabe T, Nagai K, Ukai S.(2).

3. Apoptosis
In the assessment of the Catalpol, an iridoid glucoside found in the root of Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch on reduced apoptosis in neuronal cell lines, found that Pre-treatment of HUVECs with catalpol significantly reduced H(2)O(2)-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species release. Catalpol not only increased the expression of Bcl-2, while decreasing Bax expression, but also induced Akt activation and Bad phosphorylation, and ultimately reduced H(2)O(2)-induced apoptosis. The protective effects of catalpol were partially inhibited by the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) antagonist wortmannin or 2-(4-morpholinyl)-8-phenyl-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one (LY294002). Taken together, these results suggest that pre-treatment of HUVECs with catalpol can block H(2)O(2)-induced apoptosis, and that the underlying mechanism involves reactive oxygen species scavenging, activation of the PI3K/Akt-Bad signaling pathway and increased Bcl-2 and decreased Bax expression, according to “Catalpol inhibits apoptosis in hydrogen peroxide-induced endothelium by activating the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway and modulating expression of Bcl-2 and Bax” by Hu L, Sun Y, Hu J.(3).

4. Osteoarthritis
In the investigation of the safety and efficacy of herb extracts, AIF (a water soluble extract of three herbs, Panax notoginseng (Burk.) F. H. Chen, Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch and Eleutherococcus senticosus.), on Korean knee osteoarthritis patients for six weeks. Fifty seven patients with knee osteoarthritis, ranging from 43 to 73 years of age, who fulfilled the “American College of Rheumatology” (ACR) classification of idiopathic osteoarthritis of knee and radiographic criteria, found that an improvement in the physical function of K-WOMAC scale which was significantly higher (p=0.013) in AIF than placebo group, and decreases of total K-WOMAC score were also significantly higher (p=0.030) in AIF groups than placebo group. No serious adverse effect was observed, and there was no difference in incidence of adverse effect between AIF and placebo groups, according to “Effects of AIF on Knee Osteoarthritis Patients: Double-blind, Randomized Placebo-controlled Study” by Park SH, Kim SK, Shin IH, Kim HG, Choe JY.(4).

5. Antidepressant effect
In the verification of antidepressant effect of Shudihuang, the steamed roots of Rehmannia glutinota Libosch. (SRG), in traditional Chinese medicine, found that SRG is of therapeutic value for depression-like disorders, and antioxidation may be one of the mechanisms underlying its antidepressant action, according to “Antidepressant effect of Shudihuang on mice exposed to unpredictable chronic mild stress” by Zhang D, Wen XS, Wang XY, Shi M, Zhao Y.(5).

6. Type II diabetes
In the evaluation of the mechanisms of treating 2-DM by Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch water extraction (RGLE), found that the mRNA and protein expressions of proinsulin in RGLE group were higher than those of diabetic model group (P<0.01). The levels of FPG decreased. FINS,IS, HbetaCI increased (P<0.01) and suggested that It may be the mechanism how the RGLE to decline high FPG and cure the 2-DM, according to “[Effect of Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch water extraction on gene expression of proinsulin in type 2 diabetes mellitus rats].[Article in Chinese]” by Meng QY, Lv XF, Jin XD.(6).

7. Etc.

Side Effects
1. Overdoses can damage to kidney and liver as the herb is toxic
2. Di huang may cause side effect of gastrointestinal discomfit, such as diarrhea, abdominal pain, dizziness, weakness, and hear palpitations.
3. Do not use the herb in newborn, children or if you are pregnant or breast feeding without consulting first with the related field specialist
4. Do not use Sheng Di huang in case of spleen deficiency with accumulation of dampness.
5. Etc.

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