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Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome
Unfortunately, according to studies, women with PCOs after the reproductive age, are associated to continuously increase risk of type II diabetes, with no increasingaltered glucose tolerance(20), CVD and hypertension(21).
Management and Treatment according to Traditional Chinese Medicine Perspective
While conventional medicine focus of using synthetic medication to induce ovulation and assisted artificial insemination for infertility couple, if the medicine fail, traditional Chinese medicine views polycystic ovarian syndrome in different approaches.
Polycystic ovary syndrome, according to traditional Chinese medicine is a medical condition characterized by accumulative of fluid over a prolonged period of time causes of dampness and phlegms(1247a)(1247b) build up on the ovaries due to the effects of vary differentiations, affecting not only the women’s menstrual cycle, but also ovulation and fertility(1247a)(1247b).
The Dietary Suggestion, Life Style Modification and Nutritional Supplements according to TCM
According to Angela Warburton(1249), a doctor of Traditional Chinese Medicine practicing in Toronto, Canada, incorporating the proper dietary and lifestyle modifications, may make a BIG difference in the long-term for treatment of PCOs(1249).
The Nutritional Supplements
B. Micro nutrient supplements
1. B Vitamins
[Vitamin B1 (thiamine), Vitamin B2 (riboflavin), Vitamin B3 (niacin or nicotinic acid), Vitamin B5 (pantothenic acid), Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine, pyridoxal, pyridoxamine), Vitamin B7 (biotin), Vitamin B9 (folic acid) and Vitamin B12 (various cobalamins; commonly cyanocobalamin or methylcobalamin in vitamin supplements)](1416)
B vitamins, a class of water-soluble vitamins, coexisted in the same foods, play an important role in cell metabolism, found in many foods, including legumes (pulses or beans), whole grains, potatoes, bananas, chili peppers, tempeh, nutritional yeast, brewer's yeast, and molasses(1416). According to studies, deficiency of certain members of B vitamins may disrupt cell metabolism, leading to risk of cancers(1417)(1418)(1419)(1420) and metabolic syndrome(1428).
a. Vitamin B1 (thiamine)
Deficiency of vitamin B1 may contribute to dyslipidemia(1421)(1427) and induce vascular complications in clinical diabetes(1421)(1422)(1423), metabolic defect(1424), cardiovascular diseases(1245), hypertension(1426), insulin resistance(1427), etc....
b. Vitamin B2 (riboflavin)
Deficiency of vitamin B2 has shown to decrease immune efficiency(1429)(1430) and anti oxidant status(1429), induce abnormal blood glucose level(1431), migraine(1432)(1433), various skin diseases(1434), hypertension(1435), hyperlipidemia(1436), etc...
c. Vitamin B3 (niacin or nicotinic acid)
Deficiency of vitamin B3 may contribute to low-grade chronic inflammation (metaflammation)(1437), reduce the effects on metabolic regulation(1437), including type 2 diabetes(1437), obesity(1437), and cardiovascular disease(1437), pigmentary disorders(1438) and acne(1438), etc....
d. Vitamin B5 (pantothenic acid)
Deficiency of vitamin B5 has shown to induce acne vulgaris(1439), hypertension(1440)(1441), a decrease in total antioxidant status(1442), insulin sensitive(1443), reduced diabetic cardiovascular function and cardiac performance(1444), etc...
e. Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine, pyridoxal, pyridoxamine)
Deficiency of vitamin B6 may display sensorimotor peripheral neuropathy(a decreased ability to move or feel (sensation) due to nerve damage)(1445), hyperhomocysteinemia, a possible risk factor of morbidity and mortality associated with cardiovascular disease(1446), abnormal glucose levels(1431), endothelial dysfunction(1447), diabetes(1447) and inflammation(1447), reduce sympathetic activity and insulin-response, etc...
f. Vitamin B7 (biotin)
Deficiency of vitamin B7 has shown to contribute to genetic instability causes of DNA damage(1448) inducing cancers(1449) and a risk a factor in some neurodegenerative diseases(1449)m diffuse hair loss(1450), periorificial or acral dermatitis(1451), insulin sensitivity(1452) and glucose uptake(1452), risk of diabetes(1452), etc...
g. Vitamin B9 (folic acid)
Folic acid has shown to process the property in reduced risk of endothelial dysfunction(1457), CHD(1453) and CVD(1454)(1455), produced blood cells,(1456) secured cell division(1456), and growth(1456), improved antioxidant stasis(1458), lowered risk of diabetes(1459), etc,... Folic acid deficiency may induce risk of early onset of diabetes(1460), metabolic syndrome associated with increased risk for diabetes and cardiovascular disease(1460), depressed cell-mediated immunity(1461).
h. Vitamin B12 (various cobalamins; commonly cyanocobalamin or methylcobalamin in vitamin supplements)
Epidemiological studies suggestion that vitamin B12 exhibits anti insulin resistance(1465) and endothelial dysfunction(1465), depression(1468)(1469) effects, etc,... Deficiency of vitamin B12 induced risk of neurocognitive disorders(1462)(1463), and decline(1462), obesity and overweight(1464), altered lipid profile in the prediction of metabolic risk(1466), cardiovascular disease associated to hyperhomocysteinemia(1467).
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(1) Adiposity and metabolic dysfunction in polycystic ovary syndrome by Sam S.(PubMed)
(2) A "kiss" before conception: triggering ovulation with kisspeptin-54 may improve IVF by Young SL.(PubMed)
(3.) Androgen hyperfunction and excessive heterosexual hair growth in women, with special attention to the polycystic ovarian syndrome by Lunde O1.(PubMed)
(4) Expression of anti-Müllerian hormone in letrozole rat model of polycystic ovary syndrome by Du DF1, Li XL, Fang F, Du MR.(PubMed)
(5) [Serum levels of anti-muller hormone in women with polycystic ovary syndromeand healthy women of reproductive age].[Article in Bulgarian] by Parahuleva N, Pehlivanov B, Orbecova M, Deneva T, Uchikova E.(PubMed)
(6) [Current opinions on the etiology and pathophysiology of hirsutism].[Article in Polish] by Krysiak R1, Kedzia A, Okopień B.(PubMed)
(7) The clinical evaluation of hirsutism by Somani N1, Harrison S, Bergfeld WF.(PubMed)
(8) Polycystic ovary syndrome and insulin: our understanding in the past, present and future by Mayer SB1, Evans WS, Nestler JE.(PubMed)
(9) Association of mean platelet volume with androgens and insulin resistance in nonobese patients with polycystic ovary syndrome by Dogan BA1, Arduc A2, Tuna MM1, Karakılıc E1, Dagdelen I1, Tutuncu Y1, Berker D1, Guler S1.(PubMed)
(10) Approach to the patient: contraception in women with polycystic ovary syndrome by Yildiz BO1.(PubMed)
(11) Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS): a significant contributor to the overall burden of type 2 diabetes in women by Talbott EO1, Zborowski JV, Rager JR, Kip KE, Xu X, Orchard TJ.(PubMed)
(12) Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in Slovak women with polycystic ovary syndrome and its relation to metabolic and reproductive abnormalities by Figurová J1, Dravecká I, Javorský M, Petríková J, Lazúrová I.(PubMed)
(13) Role of Insulin Sensitizers on Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome: A Meta-Analysis by Thethi TK1, Katalenich B2, Nagireddy P3, Chabbra P4, Kuhadiya N5, Fonseca V1.(PubMed)
(14) Acne in hirsute women by Lumezi BG1, Pupovci HL1, Berisha VL1, Goçi AU2, Gerqari A3.(PubMed)
(15) Obesity and polycystic ovary syndrome by Naderpoor N1, Shorakae S, Joham A, Boyle J, De Courten B, Teede HJ.(PubMed)
(16) Polycystic ovary syndrome: a complex condition with psychological, reproductive and metabolic manifestations that impacts on health across the lifespan by Teede H1, Deeks A, Moran L.(PubMed)
(17) Metabolic Evidence of Diminished Lipid Oxidation in Women With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome. by Whigham LD1, Butz DE2, Dashti H3, Tonelli M3, Johnson LK1, Cook ME2, Porter WP4, Eghbalnia HR5, Markley JL6, Lindheim SR7, Schoeller DA8, Abbott DH9, Assadi-Porter FM10.(PubMed)
(18) Risk of endometrial, ovarian and breast cancer in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis by Barry JA1, Azizia MM1, Hardiman PJ2.(PubMed)
(19) Risk of cancer among women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a Danish cohort study by Gottschau M1, Kjaer SK2, Jensen A1, Munk C1, Mellemkjaer L3.(PubMed)
(20) Polycystic ovary syndrome: metabolic consequences and long-term management by Carmina E1.(PubMed)
(21) Arterial stiffness is increased in asymptomatic nondiabetic postmenopausal women with a polycystic ovary syndrome phenotype by Armeni E1, Stamatelopoulos K, Rizos D, Georgiopoulos G, Kazani M, Kazani A, Kolyviras A, Stellos K, Panoulis K, Alexandrou A, Creatsa M, Papamichael C, Lambrinoudaki I.(PubMed)
(1246) [Clinical study of area of Jiangsu province of polycystic ovarian syndrome correlation distribution of traditional Chinese medicine syndrome type and improper diet]. [Article in Chinese] by Feng Y, Gao YP.(PubMed)
(1247) [Preliminary study on relationship of disease-syndrome-symptom of ovulatory disorder infertility based on factor analysis]. [Article in Chinese] by Li M, Ma K, Shan, J.(PubMed)
(1247a) A Comprehensive Treatment of Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) bny by Liqin Zhao
(1247b) Polycystic Ovary Syndrome - a TCM Perspective by Donna Dupre, L.Ac.
(1416) B vitamins(Wikipedia)
(1417) Plasma folate, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, homocysteine, and risk of breast cancer by Zhang SM1, Willett WC, Selhub J, Hunter DJ, Giovannucci EL, Holmes MD, Colditz GA, Hankinson SE.(PubMed)
(1418) Folate and risk of breast cancer: a meta-analysis by Larsson SC1, Giovannucci E, Wolk A.(PubMed)
(1419) A prospective study of one-carbon metabolism biomarkers and risk of renalcell carcinoma by Gibson TM1, Weinstein SJ, Mayne ST, Pfeiffer RM, Selhub J, Taylor PR, Virtamo J, Albanes D, Stolzenberg-Solomon R.(PubMed)
(1420) One-carbon metabolism biomarkers and risk of colon and rectal cancers by Weinstein SJ1, Albanes D, Selhub J, Graubard B, Lim U, Taylor PR, Virtamo J, Stolzenberg-Solomon R.(PubMed)
(1421) The potential role of thiamine (vitamin B1) in diabetic complications byThornalley PJ1.(PubMed)
(1422) Prevention of incipient diabetic nephropathy by high-dose thiamine and benfotiamine by Babaei-Jadidi R1, Karachalias N, Ahmed N, Battah S, Thornalley PJ.(PubMed)
(1423) Regulation of intracellular glucose and polyol pathway by thiamine and benfotiamine in vascular cells cultured in high glucose by Berrone E1, Beltramo E, Solimine C, Ape AU, Porta M.(PubMed)
(1424) Vitamin-responsive disorders: cobalamin, folate, biotin, vitamins B1 and E by Baumgartner MR1.(PubMed)
(1425) [Vitamin and mineral supply of patients with cardiovascular diseases]. [Article in Russian] by Oglobin NA, Vrzhesinskaia OA, Kodentsova VM, Zubenko AD, Mal'tsev GIu, Pereverzeva OG, Spirichev VB.(PubMed)
(1426) Genetic implication of a novel thiamine transporter in human hypertension by Zhang K1, Huentelman MJ2, Rao F1, Sun EI3, Corneveaux JJ2, Schork AJ1, Wei Z1, Waalen J4, Miramontes-Gonzalez JP1, Hightower CM1, Maihofer AX5, Mahata M1, Pastinen T6, Ehret GB7; International Consortium for Blood Pressure Genome-Wide Association Studies, Schork NJ8, Eskin E6, Nievergelt CM5, Saier MH Jr3, O'Connor DT9.(PubMed)
(1427) Effects of combined dietary chromium(III) propionate complex and thiamine supplementation on insulin sensitivity, blood biochemical indices, and mineral levels in high-fructose-fed rats. Król E1, Krejpcio Z, Michalak S, Wójciak RW, Bogdański P.(PubMed)
(1428) [Characteristics of nutrition and vitamin supply in girls with metabolic syndrome]. [Article in Russian] Kleshchina IuV, Eliseev IuIu.(PubMed)
(1429) Dietary riboflavin deficiency decreases immunity and antioxidant capacity, and changes tight junction proteins and related signaling molecules mRNA expression in the gills of young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) by Chen L1, Feng L2, Jiang WD2, Jiang J2, Wu P2, Zhao J1, Kuang SY3, Tang L3, Tang WN3, Zhang YA4, Zhou XQ5, Liu Y6.(PubMed)
(1430) Mucosal-associated invariant T-cells: new players in anti-bacterial immunity by Ussher JE1, Klenerman P2, Willberg CB2.(PubMed)
(1431) [The effect of a water-soluble vitamins on the activity of some enzymes in diabetes]. [Article in Russian] by Petrov SA1, Danilova AO1, Karpov LM1.(PubMed)
(1432) Improvement of migraine symptoms with a proprietary supplement containing riboflavin, magnesium and Q10: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, multicenter trial by Gaul C1, Diener HC, Danesch U; Migravent® Study Group.(PubMed)
(1433) Effectiveness of riboflavin in pediatric migraine prevention by Sherwood M1, Goldman RD.(PubMed)
(1434) [Antipruriginous action of vitamin B2 in various skin diseases]. [Article in Italian] by SEBASTIANI F.(PubMed)
(1435) Dietary contributors to hypertension in adults reviewed by McCartney DM1, Byrne DG, Turner MJ.(PubMed)
(1436) Ameliorating effect of coenzyme Q10, riboflavin and niacin in tamoxifen-treated postmenopausal breast cancer patients with special reference to lipids and lipoproteins by Yuvaraj S1, Premkumar VG, Vijayasarathy K, Gangadaran SG, Sachdanandam P.(PubMed)
(1437) Nicotinamide Riboside Ameliorates Hepatic Metaflammation by Modulating NLRP3 Inflammasome in a Rodent Model of Type 2 Diabetes by Lee HJ1, Hong YS, Jun W, Yang SJ.(PubMed)
(1438) Nicotinic acid/niacinamide and the skin by Gehring W1.(PubMed)
(1439) Pantothenic acid deficiency as the pathogenesis of acne vulgaris. Leung LH1.(PubMed)
(1440) Pantothenic acid deficiency as a factor contributing to the development of hypertension by Schwabedal PE, Pietrzik K, Wittkowski W.(PubMed)
(1441) Pantothenic acid deficiency in experimental renal hypertension in dogs by LEWIS LA, PAGE IH(PubMed)
(1442) The role of oxidative stress and antioxidants in male fertility by Walczak-Jedrzejowska R1, Wolski JK2, Slowikowska-Hilczer J1.(PubMed)
(1443) Effect of pantothenic acid deficiency on insulin sensitivity and response to ACTH of intact and diabetic rats by HAZELWOOD RL, BENNETT LL, NELSON MM.(PubMed)
(1444) Protective effect of vitamin B5 (dexpanthenol) on cardiovascular damage induced by streptozocin in rats by Demirci B, Demir O, Dost T, Birincioglu M.(PubMed)
(1445) Pyridoxine deficiency and peripheral neuropathy associated with long-term phenelzine therapy by Heller CA, Friedman PA.(PubMed)
(1446) Hyperhomocysteinemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus: cardiovascular risk factors and effect of treatment with folic acid and pyridoxine by Baliga BS1, Reynolds T, Fink LM, Fonseca VA.(PubMed)
(1447) Vitamin B status in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with and without incipient nephropathy by Nix WA1, Zirwes R2, Bangert V2, Kaiser RP3, Schilling M4, Hostalek U5, Obeid R6.(PubMed)
(1448) Biotin requirements for DNA damage prevention by Zempleni J1, Teixeira DC, Kuroishi T, Cordonier EL, Baier S.(PubMed)
(1449) Genome instability(Wikipedia)
(1450) Hair loss in long-term or home parenteral nutrition: are micronutrient deficiencies to blame? by Daniells S1, Hardy G.(PubMed)
(1451) Acrodermatitis due to nutritional deficiency by Gehrig KA1, Dinulos JG.(PubMed)
(1452) Natural supplements for improving insulin sensitivity and glucose uptake in skeletal muscle by Kouzi SA1, Yang S1, Nuzum DS1, Dirks-Naylor AJ1.(PubMed)
(1453) The prevalence and correlates of taking folic acid and vitamin supplements among adults aged ≥ 45 years with CVD by Zhao G1, Ford ES, Li C, Mokdad AH.(PubMed)
(1454) Can folic acid and vitamin B lower CVD risk in high-risk women? [No authors listed](PubMed)
(1456) Influence of folic acid supplementation on coagulation, inflammatory, lipid, and kidney function parameters in subjects with low and moderate content of folic acid in the diet by Mierzecki A, Makarewicz-Wujec M, Kłoda K1, Kozłowska-Wojciechowska M, Pieńkowski P, Naruszewicz M.(PubMed)
(1457) Folic acid improves endothelial dysfunction in type 2 diabetes--an effect independent of homocysteine-lowering by Title LM1, Ur E, Giddens K, McQueen MJ, Nassar BA.(PubMed)
(1458) Combined supplementation of folic acid and vitamin E diminishes diabetes-induced embryotoxicity in rats by Gäreskog M1, Eriksson UJ, Wentzel P.(PubMed)
(1459) Elevated homocysteine as a risk factor for the development of diabetes in women with a previous history of gestational diabetes mellitus: a 4-year prospective study by Cho NH1, Lim S, Jang HC, Park HK, Metzger BE.(PubMed)
(1460) Folate deficiency is associated with oxidative stress, increased blood pressure, and insulin resistance in spontaneously hypertensive rats by Pravenec M1, Kozich V, Krijt J, Sokolová J, Zídek V, Landa V, Simáková M, Mlejnek P, Silhavy J, Oliyarnyk O, Kazdová L, Kurtz TW.(PubMed)
(1461) Depressed cell-mediated immunity in megaloblastic anemia due to folic acid deficiency by Gross RL, Reid JV, Newberne PM, Burgess B, Marston R, Hift W.(PubMed)
(1462) Vitamin B12 and cognitive function: an evidence-based analysis by Health Quality Ontario.(PubMed)
(1463) Among vitamin B12 deficient older people, high folate levels are associated with worse cognitive function: combined data from three cohorts by Moore EM1, Ames D2, Mander AG3, Carne RP4, Brodaty H5, Woodward MC6, Boundy K7, Ellis KA8, Bush AI9, Faux NG10, Martins RN11, Masters CL12, Rowe CC13, Szoeke C14, Watters DA4.(PubMed)
(1464) Association of vitamin B12 with obesity, overweight, insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome, and body fat composition; primary care-based study by Baltaci D1, Kutlucan A, Turker Y, Yilmaz A, Karacam S, Deler H, Ucgun T, Kara IH.(PubMed)
(1465) Insulin resistance and endothelial function are improved after folate and vitamin B12 therapy in patients with metabolic syndrome: relationship between homocysteine levels and hyperinsulinemia by Setola E1, Monti LD, Galluccio E, Palloshi A, Fragasso G, Paroni R, Magni F, Sandoli EP, Lucotti P, Costa S, Fermo I, Galli-Kienle M, Origgi A, Margonato A, Piatti P.(PubMed)
(1466) Vitamin B12 insufficiency induces cholesterol biosynthesis by limiting s-adenosylmethionine and modulating the methylation of SREBF1 and LDLR genes by Adaikalakoteswari A1, Finer S2, Voyias PD1, McCarthy CM1, Vatish M3, Moore J4, Smart-Halajko M5, Bawazeer N1, Al-Daghri NM6, McTernan PG1, Kumar S1, Hitman GA5, Saravanan P7, Tripathi G1.(PubMed)
(1467) Vitamin B12 deficiency and hyperhomocysteinemia as correlates of cardiovascular risk factors in Indian subjects with coronary artery disease by Mahalle N1, Kulkarni MV, Garg MK, Naik SS.(PubMed)