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Ferulic acid is a phytochemical in the class of Hydroxycinnamic acids, found abundantly in cinnamon, aloe. etc.
1. Skin Photoprotection
In the examination of the effects of a topical antioxidant mixture consisting of vitamin C, ferulic acid, and phloretin on attenuating the harmful effects of UV irradiation on normal healthy volunteers were studied using biomarkers of skin damage, found that the protective role of a unique mixture of antioxidants containing vitamin C, ferulic acid, and phloretin on human skin from the harmful effects of UV irradiation. Phloretin, in addition to being a potent antioxidant, may stabilize and increase the skin availability of topically applied vitamin C and ferulic acid. We propose that antioxidant mixture will complement and synergize with sunscreens in providing photoprotection for human skin, according to "Protective effects of a topical antioxidant mixture containing vitamin C, ferulic acid, and phloretin against ultraviolet-induced photodamage in human skin" by Oresajo C, Stephens T, Hino PD, Law RM, Yatskayer M, Foltis P, Pillai S, Pinnell SR.(1)
2. Hearing loss
In the examination of the effect of ferulic acid (FA), a phenolic compound and their effect of noise-induced hearing loss, found that FA-induced improvement of auditory function was counteracted by the HO inhibitor zinc-protoporphyrin-IX and paralleled the time-course of HO-1 induction over 3-7 days. These results confirm the antioxidant properties of FA as free-radical scavenger and suggest a role of HO-1 as an additional mediator against noise-induced ototoxicity, according to "In vivo protective effect of ferulic acid against noise-induced hearing loss in the guinea-pig" by Fetoni AR, Mancuso C, Eramo SL, Ralli M, Piacentini R, Barone E, Paludetti G, Troiani D(2)
3. Antioxidant effects
In the examination of both qualitative and quantitative analyses of the major phenolic compounds in barley and flaxseed hulls were conducted using reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detection and quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry found that Ferulic acid, p-coumaric acid, vanillic acid and vanillin were identified and quantified in four barley hull samples. Four ferulate dehydrodimers were also detected. The phenolic compounds of flaxseed hull were distinct from those of barley hull. Three flaxseed hull samples varied significantly (P < 0.05) in their contents of secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (16.38-33.92 g kg(-1) ), coumaric acid glucoside (35.68-49.22 g kg(-1) ) and ferulic acid glucoside (5.07-15.23 g kg(-1) ) and barley and flaxseed hulls may be utilised as potential sources of functional food ingredients through extraction and concentration of the phytochemicals identified above, according to "Qualitative and quantitative analysis of the major phenolic compounds as antioxidants in barley and flaxseed hulls using HPLC/MS/MS" by Hao M, Beta T.(3)
4. Antidepressant-like effect
In the verification of the possible antidepressant-like effect of acute oral administration of ferulic acid in the forced swimming test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST) in mice, found that the combination of fluoxetine (5mg/kg, p.o.), paroxetine (0.1mg/kg, p.o.) or sertraline (1mg/kg, p.o.) with a sub-effective dose offerulic acid (0.001mg/kg, p.o.) produced a synergistic antidepressant-like effect in the TST, without causing hyperlocomotion in the open-field test. Taken together, these results demonstrate that ferulic acid exerts antidepressant-like effect in the FST and TST in mice through modulation of the serotonergic system, according to "Ferulic acid exerts antidepressant-like effect in the tail suspension test in mice: Evidence for the involvement of the serotonergic system" by Zeni AL, Zomkowski AD, Maraschin M, Rodrigues AL, Tasca CI.(4)
5. Anti-aging effects
In the evaluation of the anti-aging effects of the gel and cream containing niosomes entrapped with the rice bran bioactive compounds. The semi-purified rice bran extracts containing F, O, and P which indicated the growth stimulation of human fibroblasts and the inhibition of MMP-2 by sulforhodamine B and gelatin zymography, respectively, were entrapped in niosomes by supercritical carbon dioxide fluid (scCO(2)) and incorporated in gel and cream formulations.
found that these formulations also demonstrated higher hydration enhancement and improvement of skin lightening, thickness, roughness, and elasticity on the skin of 30 human volunteers within the 28-day treatment not more than 9, 27, 7, 3, and 3 times, respectively. Discussion and conclusions: The formulations containing niosomes entrapped with the rice bran bioactive compounds gave superior clinical anti-aging activity which can be applied as a novel skin product, according to "Anti-aging efficacy of topical formulations containing niosomes entrapped with rice bran bioactive compounds" by Manosroi A, Chutoprapat R, Abe M, Manosroi W, Manosroi J.(5)
6. Neuroprotective effect
In the investigation of whether ferulic acid demonstration of neuroprotective effect through the activation of Akt and its downstream targets, Bad and 14-3-3, found that that ferulic acid attenuates cell death during MCAO and that these protective effects are due to inhibition of Akt signaling pathway inactivation and maintenance of the interaction between phospho-Bad and 14-3-3, according to "Ferulic acidprevents the cerebral ischemic injury-induced decrease of Akt and Bad phosphorylation" by Koh PO.(6)
7. Chronic kidney disease (CKD)
In the study of the effect of ferulic acid (FA) and gallic acid (GA) in treatment of chronic kidney disease (CKD), found that The inhibitory effects of FA and GA on MMP-2 were very comparable. GA suppressed MMP-2 more effectively than FA in DRCKD rats. Both FA and GA induced SOD elevation and MDA elimination. In DRCKD rats, Western blot analysis indicated that FA further up-regulated CD34, α-SMA, tissue pDGFR, p-PDGFR, and TGF-β; and down-regulated p-PI3K, and p-Akt. Since both PDGF-BB and TGF-β are considered to induce kidney prefibrosis stage, GA was proved to be more beneficial in this regard, according to "Ferulic acid is nephrodamaging while gallic acid is renal protective in long term treatment of chronic kidney disease" by Peng CC, Hsieh CL, Wang HE, Chung JY, Chen KC, Peng RY.(7)
8. Neurodegenerative disorders
In the investigation of Oxidative stress involved in the onset, progression and pathogenesis of a number of diseases including neurodegenerative diseases for the development from a pharmacological approach to combat oxidative stress which may reduce the risk of diseases and help in promoting healthy life, indicated that the protective role of ferulic acid (4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamic acid) (FA), a naturally occurring antioxidant compound found in fruit, some vegetables, and grains, and its ethyl ester derivative are discussed with respect to neurodegeneration. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Antioxidants and Antioxidant Treatment in Disease, according to "Ferulic acid ethyl ester as a potential therapy in neurodegenerative disorders" by Sultana R.(8)
In the investigation of ferulic acid (FA) known as anti-oxidative agent effect on diabetic nephropathy by anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory mechanism, found that in renal histopathology, FA-treated OLETF rats showed decreased glomerular basement membrane thickness, glomerular volume, and mesangial matrix expansion. FA treatment decreased oxidative stress markers and MCP-1 levels in 24 h urine of rats and supernatants of cultured podocyte. FA have protective and therapeutic effects on diabetic nephropathy by reducing oxidative stress and inflammation, according to "Effects of ferulic acid on diabetic nephropathy in a rat model of type 2 diabetes" by Choi R, Kim BH, Naowaboot J, Lee MY, Hyun MR, Cho EJ, Lee ES, Lee EY, Yang YC, Chung CH.(9)
10. Cytotoxic effects
In the study of the first synthesis of 1-O-feruloyl-secoisolariciresinol, 1,4-O-diferuloyl-secoisolariceresinol and their analogues and theirs cytotoxicities against several cancer cell lines,
found that the feruloyl diester derivative of secoisolariciresinol was the most active cytotoxic compound against all the cancer cells tested in this experiment. The IC(50) values of the1,4-O-diferuloyl-secoisolariceresinol were in the range of 7.1-9.8μM except one cell line. In considering that both ferulic acid and secoisolariciresinol are commonly found in many plants and have no cytotoxicity, this finding is remarkable in that simple covalent bonds between the ferulic acid and secoisolariciresinol cause a cytotoxic effect, according to "Synthesis and evaluation of cytotoxic effects of hanultarin and its derivatives" by Lee E, Ahamed VS, Kumar MS, Rhee SW, Moon SS, Hong IS.(10)
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