Tuesday, July 5, 2016

The Obesity' Research and Studies of Effects of Adding Exercise to a 16-Week Very Low-Calorie Diet in Obese, Insulin-Dependent Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients

Kyle J. Norton(Scholar, Master of Nutrients), all right reserved.
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
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Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.

Obesity is a medical condition of excess body fat accumulated overtime, while overweight is a condition of excess body weight relatively to the height. According to the Body Mass Index(BMI), a BMI between 25 to 29.9 is considered over weight, while a BMI of over 30 is an indication of obesity. According to the statistic, 68% of American population are either overweight or obese.

You can calculate your BMI index BMI= weight (kg)/ height (m2)

The Studies of Effects of Adding Exercise to a 16-Week Very Low-Calorie Diet in Obese, Insulin-Dependent Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients

In a clinical research center in an academic medical center.Subjects:Twenty-seven obese [body mass index 37.2 ± 0.9 kg/m(2) (mean ± sem)] insulin-treated type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.Intervention:Patients followed a 16-wk VLCD. Thirteen of them simultaneously participated in an exercise program (E) consisting of 1-h, in-hospital training and four 30-min training sessions on a cycloergometer weekly.Outcome Measures:Insulin resistance was measured by a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp. Insulin signaling, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content, and intramyocellular lipid content was measured in skeletal muscle biopsies.Results:Baseline characteristics were identical in both groups, showed that Substantial weight loss occurred (-23.7 ± 1.7 kg VLCD-only vs. -27.2 ± 1.9 kg VLCD+E, P = NS within groups). The exercise group lost more fat mass. Insulin-stimulated glucose disposal increased similarly in both study groups [15.0 ± 0.9 to 39.2 ± 4.7 μmol/min(-1) · kg lean body mass (LBM(-1)) VLCD-only vs. 17.0 ± 1.0 to 37.5 ± 3.5 μmol/min(-1) · kg LBM(-1) in VLCD+E], as did phosphorylation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-protein kinase B/AKT insulin signaling pathway. In contrast, skeletal muscle mtDNA content increased only in the VLCD+E group (1211 ± 185 to 2288 ± 358, arbitrary units, P = 0.016 vs. 1397 ± 240 to 1196 ± 179, P = NS, VLCD-only group). Maximum aerobic capacity also only increased significantly in the VLCD+E group (+6.6 ± 1.7 ml/min(-1) · kg LBM(-1) vs. +0.7 ± 1.5 ml/min(-1) · kg LBM(-1) VLCD-only, P = 0.017).Conclusion:Addition of exerciseto a 16-wk VLCD induces more fat loss. Exercise augments maximum aerobic capacity and skeletal muscle mtDNA content(1).

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(1) "Effects of Adding Exercise to a 16-Week Very Low-Calorie Diet in Obese, Insulin-Dependent Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients' by Snel M, Gastaldelli A,Ouwens DM, Hesselink MK, Schaart G, Buzzigoli E, Frölich M, Romijn JA, Pijl H,Meinders AE, Jazet IM.

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