Sunday, July 10, 2016

Traditional Chinese Medicine Herbal Therapy - Popular Chinese Herbs - Gan Cao (Radix Glycyrrhizae Uralensis)

Kyle J. Norton(Scholar and Master of Nutrients, all right reserved)
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
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Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.

 Gan Cao (Radix Glycyrrhizae Uralensis)

Gan Cao is also known as Licorice root. The sweet and neutral herb has been used in TCM as anti allergy, anti inflammation, anti ulcer, anti convulsion and to treat stomach weakness, tired and lack of strength, palpitation and short of breath, cough with abundance of phlegm, stomach and solar plexus pain, etc., as it tonifies the Spleen, benefits the Qi, moistens the Lungs, calms cough, deaf or acute pain, by enhancing all 12 channels.

1. Glycyrrhizic acid
2. 24-hydroxyglycyrrhetic acid
3. Licorice saponins A3
4. Licochalcone A
5. Licochalcone B
6. Licoflavone
7. Liquiritin
8. Liquiritigenin
9. Isoliquiritigenin
10. Ononins
11. 4′,7-dihydroxyflavone
12. Etc.

Health Benefits
1. Osteoporosis
In the investigation of the effects of liquiritigenin, one of the flavonoids present in Glycyrrhizae radix, on the function of osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells, found that Liquiritigenin caused a significant elevation of cell growth, alkaline phosphatase activity, collagen synthesis, mineralization, and glutathione content in the cells (P<0.05). Moreover, liquiritigenin significantly decreased the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and osteoclast differentiation inducing factors such as tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) in the presence of antimycin A, which inhibits mitochondrial electron transport and has been used as a ROS generator, according to “Liquiritigenin isolated from Glycyrrhiza uralensis stimulates osteoblast function in osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells” by Choi EM.(1).

2. Anti-inflammatory effects
In the investigation of the anti-inflammatory effects of glycyrol, a benzofuran coumarin isolated from Glycyrrhizae Radix, found that administration of glycyrol (30 and 100 mg/kg, i.p) reduced the thickness of carrageenan-induced mouse-paw edema swelling. Taken together, our results indicate that glycyrol is an important anti-inflammatory constituent of Glycyrrhizae Radix, and that its anti-inflammatory effect is attributed to the inhibition I-kappaBalpha phosphorylation, according to “Anti-inflammatory effects of glycyrol isolated from Glycyrrhiza uralensis in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages” by Shin EM, Zhou HY, Guo LY, Kim JA, Lee SH, Merfort I, Kang SS, Kim HS, Kim S, Kim YS.(2).

3. Hepatitis
In the evaluation of the mechanisms of Diammonium glycyrrhizinate (DG), a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), extracted and purified from liquorices (Radix glycyrrhizae) in protecting mice from ConA-induced hepatitis, found that DG can inhibit the recruitment of lymphocytes into the liver. In addition, the production of IL-6 and IL-10 was improved by DG pretreatment, suggesting that DG may possibly protect the liver from injury via two pathways: direct protection of hepatocytes from apoptosis through an IL-6-dependent way and indirect inhibition of T-cell-mediated inflammation through an IL-10-dependent way, according to “Diammonium glycyrrhizinate, a component of traditional Chinese medicine Gan-Cao, prevents murine T-cell-mediated fulminant hepatitis in IL-10- and IL-6-dependent manners” by Feng C, Wang H, Yao C, Zhang J, Tian Z.(3).

4. Anti diabetes
in the investigation of the anti-diabetic effect and mechanism of raw Glycyrrhizae Radix (GR) and GRP extracts and their major respective components, glycyrrhizin and glycyrrhetinic acid, found that In partial pancreatectomized (Px) diabetic mice, both GR and GRP improved glucose tolerance, but only GRP enhanced glucose-stimulated insulin secretion as much as exendin-4. Both GR and GRP extracts enhanced insulin-stimulated glucose uptake through peroxisome proliferation-activated receptor (PPAR)-gamma activation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, according to “Changes in components, glycyrrhizin and glycyrrhetinic acid, in raw Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch, modify insulin sensitizing and insulinotropic actions” by Ko BS, Jang JS, Hong SM, Sung SR, Lee JE, Lee MY, Jeon WK, Park S.(4).

5. Antispasmodic effects
In the examination of an antispasmodic principle of licorice other than glycycoumarin. Isoliquiritigenin was isolated from an aqueous extract of licorice as a potent relaxant, found that
the relaxant activity of the treated sample was increased significantly, shifting the IC50 from 358+/-104 to 150+/-38 microg/ml for CCh-induced contraction. Isoliquiritigenin also showed the most potent inhibition of mouse rectal contraction induced by CCh with an IC50 value of 1.70+/-0.07 microM. These results suggest that isoliquiritigenin acts as a potent relaxant in the lower part of the intestine by transformation from its glycosides, according to “Isoliquiritigenin, one of the antispasmodic principles of Glycyrrhiza ularensis roots, acts in the lower part of intestine” by Sato Y, He JX, Nagai H, Tani T, Akao T.(5).

6. Anti hypersensitivity
In the examination of electively deplete glycyrrhizin from Si-Ni-San, a traditional Chinese prescription that consists of 4 Chinese herbs including Radix Glycyrrhizae Uralensis, and examined its influence on the suppressing activity of Si-Ni-San against contact sensitivity in mice, found that glycyrrhizin may act as one of the active constituents of Si-Ni-San in inhibiting delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction via down-regulating the MMP production and the cell adhesion to extracellular matrix, according to “Selective depletion of glycyrrhizin from Si-Ni-San, a traditional Chinese prescription, blocks its effect on contact sensitivity in mice and recovers adhesion and metalloproteinases production of T lymphocytes” by Zhang L, Sun Y, Chen T, Xu Q.(6).

7. Etc.

Side Effects
1. Overdoses can increase blood pressure.
2. Long term usage may cause edema and hypokalemia
3. Do not use the herb together with aspirin as it may increase the risk of stomach upset

4. Etc.

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