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Fan Hong Hua (Flos Carthami Tinctorii)
Fan Hong Hua also known as Dried Saffron Stigma. The warm and acrid herb has been used in TCM as anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, analgesic, anti platelet coagulation, anti-inflammatory
anti-spasmodic agent and to stimulate the heart, lower the resistance of coronary arteries, improve circulation, increase the rhythmic contraction of the pregnant uterus, etc., as it moves Blood, cool Blood, expels toxins, resolves depression, etc., by enhancing the functions of liver and heart channels.
7. Palmitic acid
8. Myristic acid
9. Lauric acid
10. Stearic acid
11. Cinnamic acid
12. Arachidic acid
13. Oleic acid
14. Linolenic acid
1. Cardio-protective effects
In the investigation of the effect of Flos Carthami (FC(EtOH)) ethanolic extract on LPS-induced apoptosis in H9c2 cardiomyoblast cells, found that Carthamus tinctorius L. possesses the ability to suppress JNK activity and inhibit LPS-induced TNFalpha activation and apoptosis in H9c2 cardiomyoblast cells. Carthamus tinctorius L could potentially serve as a cardio-protective agent against LPS-induced apoptosis, according to “Carthamus tinctorius L. prevents LPS-induced TNFalpha signaling activation and cell apoptosis through JNK1/2-NFkappaB pathway inhibition in H9c2 cardiomyoblast cells” byTien YC, Lin JY, Lai CH, Kuo CH, Lin WY, Tsai CH, Tsai FJ, Cheng YC, Peng WH, Huang CY.(1).
2. Melanogenesis inhibitor
In the evaluation of thye isolation of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) seeds for melanogenesis inhibitory activity for the development of a new skin whitening agent, found that three active compounds, N-feruloylserotonin, N-(p-coumaroyl)serotonin, and acacetin, were isolated from the ethyl acetate fraction as the active principles. Compared with arbutin (IC50=0.223 mM), the IC50 values of these compounds were 0.023, 0.074, and 0.779 mM for N-feruloylserotonin, N-(p-coumaroyl)serotonin, and acacetin, respectively. It was also found that N-feruloylserotonin and N-(p-coumaroyl)serotonin strongly inhibited the melanin production of Streptomyces bikiniensis and B16 melanoma cells in comparison with a known melanogenesis inhibitor, arbutin, according to “Inhibitory effects of active compounds isolated from safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) seeds for melanogenesis” by Roh JS, Han JY, Kim JH, Hwang JK.(2).
3. Osteoporosis prevention
In the investigation of the methanolic extract of safflower seeds (MESS) containing high mineral content, such as calcium (Ca), potassium (K) and phosphorous (P), for the role on osteoblast (Ob) markers of Sprague-Dawley rats, found that the effect of MESS on bone formation likely appears to be mediated by IGF-I at the early stage of treatment, according to “Determination of mineral content in methanolic safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) seed extract and its effect on osteoblast markers” by Lee YS, Choi CW, Kim JJ, Ganapathi A, Udayakumar R, Kim SC.(3).
4. Hair growth
In the identification of the possible mechanisms involved in hair loss treatment of the selected plants by determining the 5α-reductase enzyme inhibition and hair growth promoting activities,
found that Ethanolic extract of Carthamus tinctorius was the most potent 5α-reductase inhibitor and hair growth promoter. This discovery may lead to the development of new alternative medicines for hair loss prevention and treatment, according to “5α-reductase inhibition and hair growth promotion of some Thai plants traditionally used for hair treatment” by Kumar N, Rungseevijitprapa W, Narkkhong NA, Suttajit M, Chaiyasut C. (4).
5. Anti-inflammatory effects
In the analyzing eight new linear polyacetylene glucosides (1-8), containing two C(10)-, one C(13)- and five C(14)-acetylenes, together with three known polyacetylenes (9-11) isolatedfrom the florets of Carthamus tinctorius L. for their anti inflammatory effects, found that the absolute configurations of compounds 3-9 were confirmed by Snatzke and Gerards’s method, observing the induced circular dichroism after addition of dirhodium tetrakis (trifluoroacetate) [Rh(2)(OCOCF(3))(4)] in CHCl(3). All the isolated compounds (1-11) were also tested for inhibitory activities against LPS-induced NO production in murine macrophages and just showed weak activities at concentrations of 1×10(-5)M, according to “New polyacetylene glucosides from the florets of Carthamus tinctorius and their weak anti-inflammatory activities” by He J, Shen Y, Jiang JS, Yang YN, Feng ZM, Zhang PC, Yuan SP, Hou Q.(5).
In the investigation of the effects of cadmium (Cd) on photosynthetic and antioxidant activities of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) plants, two cultivars (Yuming and New safflower No. 4) were used for long-term pot experiment, under 0, 25, 50 or 100 mg Cd kg(-1) (DW) soil conditions, found that the physiological response of safflower plants to Cd stress was cultivar- and dose-dependent. New safflower No. 4 exhibited high photosynthetic performance at high Cd stress, which may be contributed by high intercellular CO(2) concentration, APX activity and Car/Chl ratio. In contrast, Yuming is more tolerant to Cd toxicity at low Cd level, in which an efficient antioxidant system is involved, according to “Cadmium accumulation and tolerance of two safflower cultivars in relation to photosynthesis and antioxidative enzymes” by Shi G, Liu C, Cai Q, Liu Q, Hou C.(6).
7. Myocardial ischemia
In the investigation of the anti-myocardial ischemia effects of a purified extract of C. tinctorius (ECT) both in vivo and in vitro, found that Phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K) inhibitor (LY294002) blocked the cytoprotective effect conferred by ECT. Taken together, our findings provide the first evidence that the cardioprotective effects of ECT in myocardial ischemia operate partially through reducing oxidative stress induced damage and apoptosis. The protection is achieved by scavenging of ROS and mediating the PI3K signaling pathway, according to “Protective effects of purified safflower extract on myocardial ischemia in vivo and in vitro” by Han SY, Li HX, Ma X, Zhang K, Ma ZZ, Tu PF.(7).
1. Do not use Fan Hong Hua, in cases of bleeding, heavy menses, ulcer, etc.
2. The herb can interaction with other blood thinning medicine
3. Do not use the herb in newborn, children or if you are pregnant or breast feeding without consulting with the related field specialist.
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