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Monday, July 11, 2016

Traditional Chinese Medicine Herbal Therapy - Popular Chinese Herbs - Ge gan or Ge Hua ( Radix Puerariae)

Kyle J. Norton(Scholar and Master of Nutrients, all right reserved)
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
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Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.

Ge gan or Ge Hua ( Radix Puerariae)

Ge Gen is also known as Kudzuvine Root. The acrid, sweet and neutral herb has been used in TCM as anti-arrhythmia, anti cancers, anti-oxidation, anti platelet coagulation, etc. and to lower blood sugar, relax the blood vessels, improve memory, treat diarrhea, etc., as it raises Yang; clears Heat, promotes generation of Body Fluids, etc., by enhancing the functions of spleen and stomach channels.

1. 7-xyloside puerarin
2. Formononetin
3. Genistein
4. Methylpuerarin
5. Daidzein
6. Daidzin
7. Puerarin
8. Puerarin-7-xyloside
9. Xylopueratin
10 Miroestrol
11. Sophoradiol
12. Soyasapogenols A, B,
13. Cantoniensistriol
14. Etc.

Health Benefits

1. Cardiovascular disease
In the investigation of Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix (Danshen) and Puerariae Lobatae Radix (Gegen), two principal herbsused in combination for treating cardiovascular disease, found that Danshen and Gegen in the ratio of 7:3 (DGW) significantly inhibited A7r5 proliferation and exhibited G1/S cell cycle arrest by suppressing both p-ERK and cyclin D expression. Moreover, DGW showed anti-migratory effect against PDGF-induced A7r5 migration. In addition, DGW inhibited the cell adhesion as well as the expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1, the production of MCP-1 but not IL-6 in TNF-α stimulated HUVECs, according to “Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix and Puerariae Lobatae Radix herbal formula mediates anti-atherosclerosis by modulating key atherogenic events both in vascular smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells” by Koon CM, Woo KS, Leung PC, Fung KP.(1).

2. Cytoprotective effect
In the investigation of Danshen-Gegen (DG) Decoction, an herbal formulation containing Radix Salviae miltiorrhizae and Radix Puerariae lobatae, used for the treatment of coronary artery disease in Chinese medicine, found that DG extract increased the production of cytochrome P-450 (CYP)-dependent reactive oxygen species (ROS) in H9c2 cardiomyocytes, which was accompanied by the concomitant activation of ERK1/2 and PKCε. The DG-induced ERK1/2 activation was followed by the translocation of Nrf2 from the cytosol to the mitochondria accompanied by an increase in the expression of glutathione-related antioxidant proteins, according to “Danshen-Gegen decoction protects against hypoxia/reoxygenation-induced apoptosis by inhibiting mitochondrial permeability transition via the redox-sensitive ERK/Nrf2 and PKCε/mKATP pathways in H9c2 cardiomyocytes” byChiu PY, Leung HY, Leong PK, Chen N, Zhou L, Zuo Z, Lam PY, Ko KM.(2).

3. Anti-hypertensive effect
In the investigation of an aqueous extract comprising Danshen and Gegen in the ratio of 7:3 (DG) for its anti-hypertension in vivo and vasodilative activities ex vivo, found that For in vivo study, systolic blood pressure was significantly reduced in DG extract-treated groups (90.2 and 300 mg/kg) as compared with the SHR control in both preventive and therapeutic studies. However, DG extract was unable to suppress or delay the onset of hypertension in the preventive study. For ex vivo study, the results showed that DG extract induced a concentration-dependent relaxation in aorta and persisted response was observed with the removal of endothelium. Besides, pretreatment with a non-selective potassium channel inhibitor tetraethylammonium (TEA) also significantly inhibited DG extract-induced vasodilation, according to “The anti-hypertensive effect of Danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza) and Gegen (Pueraria lobata) formula in rats and its underlying mechanisms of vasorelaxation” by Ng CF, Koon CM, Cheung DW, Lam MY, Leung PC, Lau CB, Fung KP.(3).

4. Hair growth
In the investigation of the crude extract from Puerariae Flos (the flowers of Pueraria thomsonii) and its inhibitory activity on testosterone 5α-reductase, found that Puerariae Radix (roots of Pueraria lobata), found that The 50% ethanolic extract of Puerariae Flos (PF-ext) showed inhibitory activity of 60.2% at 500 μg/ml against testosterone 5α-reductase. Interestingly, it was more potent than that of Puerariae Radix (roots of Pueraria lobata). PF-ext also showed in vivo anti-androgenic activity using a hair growth assay in testosterone-sensitive male C57Black/6NCrSlc strain mice. We demonstrated saponins, including soyasaponin I and kaikasaponin III, to be active components in PF-ext. In addition, hair growth promotion activity in C3H/He mice at 2 mg/mouse/day of the topical administration of PF-ext was demonstrated. Thus, Puerariae Flos is a promising crude drug for treating androgenic alopecia, according to “Inhibitory activities of Puerariae Flos against testosterone 5α-reductase and its hair growth promotion activities” by Murata K, Noguchi K, Kondo M, Onishi M, Watanabe N, Okamura K, Matsuda H.(4).

5. Anti diabetic effect
In the assessment of KIOM-79 is a mixture of 80% ethanol extracts of parched Puerariae radix, gingered Magnoliae cortex, Glycyrrhizae radix and Euphorbiae radix, and it preventive effect on the development of diabetic keratopathy, found that KIOM-79 exhibited corneal protective properties by not only reducing oxidative stress but inhibiting the AGEs/NF-κB downstream signal pathway during the development of diabetic keratopathy, according to “Protection against advanced glycation end products and oxidative stress during the development of diabetic keratopathy by KIOM-79″ by Kim J, Kim CS, Kim H, Jeong IH, Sohn E, Kim JS.(5).

6. Alzheimer’s disease (AD)
In the investigation of the protective effects of puerarin, an isoflavone purified from Chinese herb radix of Pueraria lobata, on viability, endogenous ROS and intracellular signaling pathways, found that SAD cybrids had increased apoptosis and increased accumulation of ROS that was inhibited by puerarin. Western blotting demonstrated that SAD cybrids had increased basal activation of the caspase-3, p38 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) that were inhibited by puerarin. Puerarin was also found to decrease Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. These results suggest that expression of SAD mitochondrial genes in cybrids activates oxidative-stress-related signaling pathways and reduces viability, and that the protective effects of puerarin inhibit oxidative-stress-induced apoptosis through down-regulation of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, which blocks the activation of JNK, p38 and caspase-3, according to “Puerarin protects Alzheimer’s disease neuronal cybrids from oxidant-stress induced apoptosis by inhibiting pro-death signaling pathways” by Zhang H, Liu Y, Lao M, Ma Z, Yi X.(6).

7. Etc.

Side Effects
1. Do not use the herb if you are experience symptoms of instant sweating in summer
2. Ge gan can cause certain allergic effects
3. Overdoses can cause digestive discomfort and in some cases damage the digestive system
4. Do not use the herb in newborn, children or if you are pregnant or breast feeding without consulting first with the related field specialist.
5. Etc.

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