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Tuesday, August 2, 2016

Phytochemicals in Foods - The Effects of Chlorogenic acid

Kyle J. Norton(Scholar and Master of Nutrients, all right reserved)
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Disilgold.com Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
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Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.


                                      Chlorogenic acid




Chlorogenic acid is a phytochemical in the class of Hydroxycinnamic acids, found abundantly in strawberries, pineapple, coffee, sunflower, blueberries, etc.

Health Benefits
1. Anti oxidative effects
In the investigation of the impact of consumption of a coffee containing high levels of chlorogenic acids on the oxidation of proteins, DNA and membrane lipids; additionally, other redox biomarkers were monitored in an intervention trial, found that the oxidation of DNA, lipids and proteins associated with the incidence of various diseases and the protection against their oxidative damage may be indicative for beneficial health effects of coffee, according to "Instant coffee with high chlorogenic acid levels protects humans against oxidative damage of macromolecules" by Hoelzl C, Knasmüller S, Wagner KH, Elbling L, Huber W, Kager N, Ferk F, Ehrlich V, Nersesyan A, Neubauer O, Desmarchelier A, Marin-Kuan M, Delatour T, Verguet C, Bezençon C, Besson A, Grathwohl D, Simic T, Kundi M, Schilter B, Cavin C.(1)

2. Hepatoprotective effects
In the investigation of the potential protective effects of chlorogenic acid (CGA) on acute liver injury caused by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in mice, found that CGA also decreased the elevated plasma levels of ALT and AST. At the transcriptional level, CGA pretreatment suppressed hepatic mRNA expression of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), TNF-alpha and NF-kappaB p65 subunit. In contrast, mRNA level of the transcriptional coactivator PGC-1alpha was restored by CGA. Finally, CGA reduced the phosphorylation of NF-kappaB p65 subunit in the liver, according to "Protective effects of chlorogenic acid on acute hepatotoxicity induced by lipopolysaccharide in mice" by Xu Y, Chen J, Yu X, Tao W, Jiang F, Yin Z, Liu C.(2)

3. Anti-obesity
in the investigation of the efficacy of chlorogenic acid on altering body fat in high-fat diet (37% calories from fat) induced-obese mice compared to caffeic acid. Caffeic acid or chlorogenic acid was supplemented with high-fat diet at 0.02% (wt/wt) dose, found that Caffeic acid and chlorogenic acid significantly inhibited fatty acid synthase, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase and acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase activities, while they increased fatty acid beta-oxidation activity and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors alpha expression in the liver compared to the high-fat group, and concluded that caffeic acid andchlorogenic acid improve body weight, lipid metabolism and obesity-related hormones levels in high-fat fed mice. Chlorogenic acid seemed to be more potent for body weight reduction and regulation of lipid metabolism than caffeic acid, according to "Chlorogenic acid exhibits anti-obesity property and improves lipid metabolism in high-fat diet-induced-obese mice" by Cho AS, Jeon SM, Kim MJ, Yeo J, Seo KI, Choi MS, Lee MK.(3)

4. Anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects
In the assessment in vivo of the anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of the aerial part and root extracts of Scorzonera acuminata, Scorzonera cana var. alpina, Scorzonera cana var. jacquiniana, Scorzonera cana var. radicosa, Scorzonera cinerea, Scorzonera eriophora, Scorzonera incisa, Scorzonera laciniata ssp. laciniata, Scorzonera parviflora and Scorzonera sublanata and theirs effect against inflammation and to relieve pain, found that Scorzonera cana var. jacquiniana, Scorzonera cinerea, Scorzonera eriophora, Scorzonera incisa and Scorzonera parviflora possess significant anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activity. It has been suggested that flavonoids and chlorogenic acid are partly responsible for mentioned activities of Scorzonera species, according to "Ethnopharmacological evaluation of some Scorzonera species: In vivo anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects" by Küpeli Akkol E, Bahadır Acıkara O, Süntar I, Ergene B, Saltan Çitoğlu G.(4)

5. Antioxidants
In the study of the chemical composition and the antioxidant activity of spent coffee grounds and coffee husks extracts, obtained by supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) with CO(2) and with CO(2) and co-solvent, found that the best antioxidant activity was showed by coffee husk extracts obtained by LPE. The quantification and the identification of the extracts were accomplished using HPLC analysis. The main compounds identified were caffeine and chlorogenic acid for the supercritical extracts from coffee husks, according to "Supercritical fluid extraction from spent coffee grounds and coffee husks: Antioxidant activity and effect of operational variables on extract composition" by Andrade KS, Gonçalvez RT, Maraschin M, Ribeiro-do-Valle RM, Martínez J, Ferreira SR.(5)

6. Antitussive
In the investigation of the orally administrated the water extracts in mice. Ammonia induced mice coughing model was used to evaluate the antitussive activity, found that only flower bud can be used as the antitussive and expectorant herbal drug. The high concentration of chlorogenic acid, 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, rutin in flower buds may be related with the antitussive and expectorant effects of Flos Farfara. To guarantee the clinical effect, rachis should be picked out before use, according to "Metabolomic profiling of the flower bud and rachis of Tussilago farfara with antitussive and expectorant effects on mice" by Li ZY, Zhi HJ, Xue SY, Sun HF, Zhang FS, Jia JP, Xing J, Zhang LZ, Qin XM.(6)

7. Rheumatoid Arthritis
In the investigation the antiarthritic activities of this compound in adjuvant induced-arthritis in male Wistar rats, and exploration of the underlying mechanisms of actions in view of immunological responses, found that CGA efficiently suppressed CD80/86 but failed to bring any changes in the CD28 count, whereas ibuprofen (standard drug) resulted in highly significant inhibition of both. We next examined the effect on CD4(+) T cells specific Th1/Th2 cytokines by flow cytometry and observed that CGA suppressed the Th1 cytokines in a highly significant manner but elevated Th2 cytokines with dose dependence. Results of the present investigation suggest that CGA is a potent antiarthritic agent, according to "Differential Effects of Chlorogenic Acid on Various Immunological Parameters Relevant to Rheumatoid Arthritis" by Chauhan PS, Satti NK, Sharma P, Sharma VK, Suri KA, Bani S.(7)

8. Antioxidant and antimicrobial effects
In the investigation of the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities and phenolic components of different solvent (absolute methanol, absolute ethanol, absolute acetone, 80% methanol, 80% ethanol, 80% acetone and deionized water) extracts of leaves, flowers and bark of Gold Mohar [Delonix regia (Bojer ex Hook.) Raf.], found that 80% methanol extract produced from the leaves exhibited significantly (P < 0.05) higher antioxidant activity, with high phenolic contents (3.63 g GAE/100 g DW), total flavonoid contents (1.19 g CE/100 g DW), inhibition of peroxidation (85.54%), DPPH scavenging capacity (IC(50) value 8.89 μg/mL) and reducing power (1.87). Similarly, this 80% methanol leaves extract also showed superior antimicrobial activity. HPLC analysis of the 80% methanol extracts for individual phenolics revealed the presence of gallic, protocatechuic and salicylic acid in leaves; gallic, protocatechuic, salicylic, trans-cinnamic and chlorogenic acid in flowers, and gallic acid in bark as the main (amount > 1.50 mg/100 g DW) phenolic acids, according to "Antioxidant and antimicrobial attributes and phenolics of different solvent extracts from leaves, flowers and bark of Gold Mohar [Delonix regia (Bojer ex Hook.) Raf]" by Shabir G, Anwar F, Sultana B, Khalid ZM, Afzal M, Khan QM, Ashrafuzzaman M.(8)

9. Apoptosis and mutagenicity
In the investigation of whether the PBMCs death induced by cold aqueous extract of Baccharis articulata (Ba-CAE) a sa result of apoptosis, and whether this extract exerts mutagenic effects on mice at 24 and 48h after administration.
found that the extract induced PBMCs death by apoptosis and increased the frequency of micronuclei in bone marrow. The phytochemical study of cold aqueous extract of Baccharis articulata (Ba-CAE) i showed the presence of flavones as luteolin and acacetin, caffeoylquinic acids as chlorogenic acid, and tannins, according to "Apoptosis and mutagenicity induction by a characterized aqueous extract of Baccharis articulata (Lam.) Pers. (Asteraceae) on normal cells" by Cariddi L, Escobar F, Sabini C, Torres C, Reinoso E, Cristofolini A, Comini L, Núñez Montoya S, Sabini L.(9)

10. Colon cancer and liver cancer
In the evaluation for antioxidant activity, total phenolics, chlorogenic acid, anthocyanin content, and in vitro anticancer capacity, found that the relationship between antioxidant activity and EC(50) of colon cancer/liver cancer cell proliferation was significant (R(2) = 0.8144; R(2) = 0.956, respectively). A significant difference in inhibition of cancer cells (P < 0.01) existed between the 3 polyphenols: chlorogenic acid, pelargonidin chloride, and malvidin chloride, suggesting that chlorogenic acid was a critical factor in the antiproliferation of colon cancer and liver cancer cells, according to "Inhibitory effect of antioxidant extracts from various potatoes on the proliferation of human colon and liver cancer cells' by Wang Q, Chen Q, He M, Mir P, Su J, Yang Q.(10)

11. Etc.

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Sources
(1) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20589860
(2) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20405164
(3) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20064576
(4) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22285519
(5) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22265539
(6) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22210102
(7) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22180146
(8) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22143540
(9) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22107990
(10) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21888504


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