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Sunday, August 7, 2016

Women Health: Premenstrual syndrome(PMS): The Adverse effects of Alcohol

Kyle J. Norton(Scholar and Master of Nutrients, all right reserved)
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Disilgold.com Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.


                                          Premenstrual syndrome(PMS)


Premenstrual syndrome is defined as faulty function of the ovaries related to the women's menstrual cycle, effected over 70% to 90% of women in the US and lesser for women in Southeast Asia because of difference in living style and social structure. The syndrome also interferes women's physical and emotional states, and daily activities as a result of hormone fluctuation and occurs one to two weeks before menstruation and then declines when the period starts.


           The Adverse effects of Alcohol

1. Liver functions
Moderate intake of no more than 2 glasses of wine is helpful in liver carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism(2) by increasing the blood flow and awareness of the nervous system. Excessive drinking damages the liver function(1)(2).
a) Detoxifying
Liver is a first line defense of our body besides in fighting against foreign invasion such as forming of free radical and bacteria and virus(3), it also helps to detoxify our body toxic(4) caused by environment toxins accumulation or any harmful substance coming into our body through diet or the air we breath, etc. Without strong liver , it causes over production of estrogen(5) resulting in premenstrual syndrome.

b) Menstrual pain and cramps
Without strong liver function, it induced over production of bad prostaglandins hormone PGE2(6) in promoting over reacted uterine muscle cause of menstrual pain and cramps(7).

c) Food craving
Liver is essential in regulating the pancreas in production of insulin(8). Abnormal function of liver in crease the risk of over production of insulin, leading to food craving(9) and over production of adrenaline hormone which causes stress(10).

2. Nutritions and minerals deficiency
Alcohol inhibits the breakdown of vitamins and minerals into usable molecule by decreasing digestive enzymes secretion and damage the lining of stomach in absorbing vital nutrients(11) by blocking the transportation of nutrients into the blood stream resulting in nutrients deficiency(11) including vitamin B complex, zinc, magnesium, potassium etc. leading to symptoms of PMS.
Example : Low levels of zinc causes over production of prolaclin(13) resulting in breast tenderness(12)
Low levels of potassium causes abnormal lymphatic function(14) and high levels of
sodium resulting in fluid retention(15).

3. Liver dysfunction
Moderate drinking alcohol generally produces feelings of relaxation and cheerfulness, but excessive drinking has the opposite effects in causing liver steatosis as fatty acids build up as plaques in the capillary around liver cells(16), leading to increase the severeness of symptoms of PMS(5).


Chinese Food Therapy
The Best Way to prevent, treat your disease, 
particular in treatment of menstrual disorder in Women Health

References
(1) Animals models of gastrointestinal and liver diseases. Animal models of alcohol-induced liver disease: pathophysiology, translational relevance, and challenges. Mathews S1, Xu M1, Wang H1, Bertola A1, Gao B2.(PubMed)
(2) Vodka and wine consumption in a swine model of metabolic syndrome alters insulin signaling pathways in the liver and skeletal muscle. Elmadhun NY1, Lassaletta AD, Chu LM, Bianchi C, Sellke FW.(PubMed)
(3) Liver-inherent immune system: its role in blood-stage malaria. Wunderlich F1, Al-Quraishy S2, Dkhil MA3(PubMed)
(4) [Humoral factors in the regulation of the natural resistance of the body in toxic lesion of the liver]. [Article in Russian] Stepanov IuB(PubMed)
(5) Differential effects of estrogen/androgen on the prevention of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in the male rat. Zhang H1, Liu Y, Wang L, Li Z, Zhang H, Wu J, Rahman N, Guo Y, Li D, Li N, Huhtaniemi I, Tsang SY, Gao GF, Li X(PubMed)
(6) Effects of bile acids on the muscle functions of guinea pig gallbladder. Xiao ZL1, Rho AK, Biancani P, Behar J.(PubMed)
(7) Effects of naproxen sodium on menstrual prostaglandins and primary dysmenorrhea. Chan WY, Fuchs F, Powell AM.(PubMed)
(8) Whole-Body and Hepatic Insulin Resistance in Obese Children. Ibarra-Reynoso LD, Pisarchyk L, Pérez-Luque EL, Garay-Sevilla ME, Malacara JM(PubMed)
(9) Neural correlates of stress- and food cue-induced food craving in obesity: association with insulin levels. Jastreboff AM1, Sinha R, Lacadie C, Small DM, Sherwin RS, Potenza MN.(PubMed)
(10) Cortisol, adrenocorticotropic hormone, serotonin, adrenaline and noradrenaline serum concentrations in relation to disease and stress in the horse. Ayala I1, Martos NF, Silvan G, Gutierrez-Panizo C, Clavel JG, Illera JC(PubMed)
(11) [Nutrition and chronic alcohol abuse]. [Article in Spanish] Moreno Otero R1, Cortés JR.(PubMed)
(12) Zinc and copper levels in premenstrual syndrome. Chuong CJ1, Dawson EB.(PubMed)
(13) Maternal zinc deficiency raises plasma prolactin levels in lactating rats. Chowanadisai W1, Kelleher SL, Lönnerdal B.(PubMed)
(14) [Roles of ATP-sensitive potassium pathway in regulating lymphatic function]. [Article in Chinese] Zhang LM1, Niu CY, Zhao ZG, Li K, Sun CY.(PubMed)
(15) High dietary sodium chloride consumption may not induce body fluid retention in humans. Heer M1, Baisch F, Kropp J, Gerzer R, Drummer C.(PubMed)
(16) [Effects of jingqianshu granule on expression of estrogen receptor alpha and beta mRNA in hypothalamus and hippocampus of PMS rats with liver-qi depression]. [Article in Chinese] Zhang H1, Ma J.(PubMed)



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