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IV. Organic Soy
Soy foods, including tofu have been in traditional Chinese diet over thousands of year, according to Chinese literature. The reduced risk of chronic disease in Asian population, including metabolic syndrome such as cardiovascular diseases, obesity and diabetes and lesser menopause symptoms in advanced age, may be aided by eating a lot of soy food accompanied with large portion of vegetables and fruits. Indeed, according to the study, only 10% of women in the East are experience symptoms of menopause in advanced age compared to over 70% of their Western counterparts.
According to Dr. Mark Messina, Ph.D., Soy foods contributed from 6.5%8 to 12.8%7 of total protein intake in older adult in Japan.(b)
The approval of cardiovascular benefit of soy by FDA in 1999 accompanied with the discovery of health benefits in clinical studies over past decade, prompted the promotion and advertisement of soy's health benefits in every aspect in Western society. Evidences could be seen by walking through the supermarkets and drug stores. Soy supplements and products such as tofu, soy milk, soy-based infant formula, and meatless “texturized vegetable protein” burgers were widely available. According to the United Soybean Board’s 2004–2005, 25% of Americans consumed soy foods or beverages at least once per week, and 74% viewed soy products as healthy.
Today, the promotion of soy is no longer existed, it may be results of discovery of adverse effects in single ingredient and animal studies, as intake of soy is associated to induce risk of certain mammary cancers and infertility. The publication of the result have drawn many criticisms. According to Thomas Badger, director and senior investigator at the Arkansas Children’s Nutrition Center in Little Rock, these effects are seen only under certain experimental conditions that are not likely to occur in humans—and therein lies the crux of the debate(a).Equol (4',7-isoflavandiol), an isoflavandiol metabolized from daidzein may be the causes, as 90% of Eastern population are equol producers but only 30% in the West.
The explanation of the positive effect of soy isoflavones in reduced risk of mammary cancers by University of Goettingen may be interesting, as researchers said" Most importantly, there is dispute as to whether isoflavones derived from soyor red clover have negative, positive or any effect at all on the mammary gland or endometrium. It is beyond any doubt that soy products may have cancerpreventing properties in a variety of organs including the mammary gland. However, these properties may only be exerted if the developing organ was under the influence of isoflavones during childhood and puberty".
Soybean is genus Glycine, the family Fabaceae, one of the legumes that contains twice as much protein per acre as any other major vegetable or grain crop, native to Southeast Asia. Now, it is grown worldwide with suitable climate for commercial profit and a a healthy foods.
2. Dietary fiber
5. Essential amino acid
6. Vitamin A
7. Vitamin B6
8. Vitamin B12
9. Vitamin C
10. Vitamin K
C. Quoted from Phytochemicals in Foods - Daidzein
Daidzein is a phytochemical in the Isoflavones, belonging to the group of Flavonoids (polyphenols), found abundantly in food of the family of legumes, soy, alfalfa sprouts, red clover, chickpeas, peanuts, etc.
1. Breast cancer
In the investigation of the anticancer effects and cellular apoptosis pathways induced by daidzein, using human MCF-7 breast cancer cell line, found that daidzein-induced ROS generation was accompanied by disruption of mitochondrial transmembrane potential, down-regulation of bcl-2, and up-regulation of bax, which led to the release of cytochrome C from the mitochondria into the cytosol, which, in turn, resulted in the activation of caspase-9 and caspase-7, and ultimately in cell death, The induction of the mitochondrial caspase-dependent pathway was confirmed by pretreatment with pan-caspase inhibitor z-VAD-fmk and antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine, according to "Daidzein induces MCF-7 breast cancer cell apoptosis via the mitochondrial pathway" by Jin S, Zhang QY, Kang XM, Wang JX, Zhao WH.(1)
2. Ameliorative effect
In the investigation of Estrogen deficiency was produced in female Sprague-Dawley rats by surgical removal of both the ovaries and these animals were used 4 weeks later and observation of Endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent relaxations due to acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside, found that Administration of daidzein (0.2 mgkg(-1)day(-1), sc 0.4 mgkg(-1)day(-1), sc and 0.8 mgkg(-1)day(-1), sc) and Atorvastatin (30 mgkg(-1)day(-1), po Positive Control) for one week markedly improved vascular endothelial dysfunction due to increase in nitric oxide bioavailability perhaps by inhibiting caveolin-1 and activation of PI3K-AKT pathway, according to 'Ameliorative effect of daidzein: a caveolin-1 inhibitor in vascular endothelium dysfunction induced by ovariectomy" by Sharma S, Singh M, Sharma PL.(2)
3. Prostate cancer
In evaluation of a mixture of soy isoflavones (genistein, daidzein, glycitein) and theirs effect on Prostate cancer, found that Daidzein could be the component of soy that protects against genistein-induced metastasis. Daidzein inhibited cell growth and synergized with radiation, affecting APE1/Ref-1, NF-kappaB and HIF-1alpha, but at lower levels than genistein and soy, in AR+ and AR- PCa cells, suggesting it is an AR-independent mechanism, according to "Daidzein effect on hormone refractory prostate cancer in vitro and in vivo compared to genistein and soy extract: potentiation of radiotherapy" by Singh-Gupta V, Zhang H, Yunker CK, Ahmad Z, Zwier D, Sarkar FH, Hillman GG.(3)
4. Cellular Integrity
In the investigation of the protective effect of two major soy isoflavones, genistein and daidzein, in combination on the status of glycoconjugates in plasma, found that Oral administration of genistein + daidzein (20 mg + 20 mg kg(-1) bw/day) to DMBA treated rats significantly (p< 0.05) brought back the status of glycoconjugates to near normal range. The present study thus demonstrated that genistein and daidzein in combination, according to "Genistein and Daidzein, in Combination, Protect Cellular Integrity during 7,12-Dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) Induced Mammary Carcinogenesis in Sprague-Dawley Rats" by Pugalendhi P, Manoharan S, Suresh K, Baskaran N.(4)
5. Anti tumors
In the establishment of the chromatographic fingerprints for the anti-tumor flavonoids of Caulis spatholobi (SSCE)(16 characteristic peaks from 10 batches of medicinal materials. Among them, the peaks 1, 3, 4, 5, 8, 9, 10, 12, 13, and 16 were identified 3,4-dihodroxybenzoic acid, 4-Hydroxybenzoic Acid, epicatechin, puerarin, daidzein, liquiritigenin, calycosin, genistein, formononetin, and prunetin, respectively.) indicatedthat The method is convenient, reproducibility and stability. It can used for quality control of the anti-tumor flavonoids of C. spatholobi (SSCE), according to '[Study on HPLC chromatographic fingerprint of anti-tumor active site SSCE of Caulis spatholobi].[Article in Chinese]" by Wang H, Liu Y, Zeng Z, He W.(5)
6. Endometrial cancer
In the evaluation of Legume, soy, tofu, and isoflavone intake and endometrial cancer risk in postmenopausal women, found that reduced risk of endometrial cancer was associated with total isoflavone intake (highest vs lowest quintile, ≥7.82 vs <1.59 mg per 1000 kcal/d, RR = 0.66, 95% CI = 0.47 to 0.91), daidzein intake (highest vs lowest quintile, ≥3.54 vs <0.70 mg per 1000 kcal/d, RR = 0.64, 95% CI = 0.46 to 0.90), and genistein intake (highest vs lowest quintile, ≥3.40 vs <0.69 mg per 1000 kcal/d, RR = 0.66, 95% CI = 0.47 to 0.91). No statistically significant association with endometrial cancer risk was observed for increasing intake of legumes, soy, tofu, or glycitein, according to "Legume, soy, tofu, and isoflavone intake and endometrial cancer risk in postmenopausal women in the multiethnic cohort study" by Ollberding NJ, Lim U, Wilkens LR, Setiawan VW, Shvetsov YB, Henderson BE, Kolonel LN, Goodman MT.(6)
7. Anti-allergic activities
In the investigation of the biocatalytic synthesis of xylooligosaccharides ofdaidzein, using cultured cells of Catharanthus roseus and Aspergillus sp. β-xylosidase, found that The cultured cells of C. roseus converted daidzein into its 4'-O-β-glucoside, 7-O-β-glucoside, and 7-O-β-primeveroside, which was a new compound. The 7-O-β-primeveroside of daidzein was further xylosylated by Aspergillus sp. β-xylosidase to daidzein trisaccharide, i.e., 7-O-[6-O-(4-O-(β-d-xylopyranosyl))-β-d-xylopyranosyl]-β-d-glucopyranoside, which was a new compound. The 4'-O-β-glucoside, 7-O-β-glucoside, and 7-O-β-primeveroside ofdaidzein exerted DPPH free-radical scavenging and superoxide radical scavenging activity. On the other hand, 7-O-β-glucoside and 7-O-β-primeveroside of daidzeinshowed inhibitory effects on IgE antibody production, according to "Synthesis of xylooligosaccharides of daidzein and their anti-oxidant and anti-allergic activities" by Shimoda K, Hamada H, Hamada H.(7)
8. Menopausal symptoms
In the examination of the efficacy of a supplement containing natural S-(-)equol, adaidzein metabolite, in reducing menopausal symptoms, found that the beneficial effects of a 10-mg natural S-(-)equol supplement is consumed daily for 12 weeks on major menopausal symptoms, specifically, hot flushes and neck or shoulder muscle stiffness, in postmenopausal Japanese women. This supplement offers a promising alternative for management of menopausal symptoms, according to "A natural s-equol supplement alleviates hot flushes and other menopausal symptoms in equol nonproducing postmenopausal Japanese women" by Aso T, Uchiyama S, Matsumura Y, Taguchi M, Nozaki M, Takamatsu K, Ishizuka B, Kubota T, Mizunuma H, Ohta H.(8)
9. Anti skin aging
In the explanation of Oestrogen (17β estradiol) and the dietary antioxidants resveratrol, genistein and S-equol, an isoflavone produced from the gut biotransformation of soy daidzein, are effective agents to reduce ageing in skin, indicated that the evidence to date suggests that the primary mechanism of action of these antioxidants is to activate oestrogen receptor β (ERβ), which in turn enhances the expression of antioxidant enzymes and inhibits the expression of snail, a transcription factor that regulates keratinocyte cell proliferation and migration. Based on their selectivity, ERβ agents provide a treatment option for ageing skin without the potential safety issues associated with oestrogen therapy, according to "Ageing skin: oestrogen receptor β agonists offer an approach to change the outcome" by Jackson RL, Greiwe JS, Schwen RJ.(9)
10. Cardioprotective effect
In the investigation of the involvement of caveolin in attenuation of the cardioprotective effect of IPC during DM in rat, found that attenuation of the cardioprotection in diabetic heart may be due to decrease the IPC mediated release of NO in the diabetic myocardium, which may be due to up -regulation of caveolin and subsequently decreased activity of eNOS, according to "Possible involvement of caveolin in attenuation of cardioprotective effect of ischemic preconditioning in diabetic rat heart" by Ajmani P, Yadav HN, Singh M, Sharma PL.(10)
11. Bone density
In the observation of the association between habitual phyto-oestrogen intake and broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) of the calcanaeum as a marker of bone density, found that enterolignans and equol were positively associated with bone density in postmenopausal women, but this association became non-significant when dietary Ca was added to the model. In the lowest quintile of Ca intake, soya isoflavones were positively associated with bone density in postmenopausal women (β = 1·4; P < 0·1). The present results therefore suggest that non-soya isoflavones are associated with bone density independent of Ca, whereas the association with soya or soya isoflavones is affected by dietary Ca, according to "Association between dietary phyto-oestrogens and bone density in men and postmenopausal women" by Kuhnle GG, Ward HA, Vogiatzoglou A, Luben RN, Mulligan A, Wareham NJ, Forouhi NG, Khaw KT.(11)
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