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IV. Organic Soy
Soy foods, including tofu have been in traditional Chinese diet over thousands of year, according to Chinese literature. The reduced risk of chronic disease in Asian population, including metabolic syndrome such as cardiovascular diseases, obesity and diabetes and lesser menopause symptoms in advanced age, may be aided by eating a lot of soy food accompanied with large portion of vegetables and fruits. Indeed, according to the study, only 10% of women in the East are experience symptoms of menopause in advanced age compared to over 70% of their Western counterparts.
According to Dr. Mark Messina, Ph.D., Soy foods contributed from 6.5%8 to 12.8%7 of total protein intake in older adult in Japan.(b)
The approval of cardiovascular benefit of soy by FDA in 1999 accompanied with the discovery of health benefits in clinical studies over past decade, prompted the promotion and advertisement of soy's health benefits in every aspect in Western society. Evidences could be seen by walking through the supermarkets and drug stores. Soy supplements and products such as tofu, soy milk, soy-based infant formula, and meatless “texturized vegetable protein” burgers were widely available. According to the United Soybean Board’s 2004–2005, 25% of Americans consumed soy foods or beverages at least once per week, and 74% viewed soy products as healthy.
Today, the promotion of soy is no longer existed, it may be results of discovery of adverse effects in single ingredient and animal studies, as intake of soy is associated to induce risk of certain mammary cancers and infertility. The publication of the result have drawn many criticisms. According to Thomas Badger, director and senior investigator at the Arkansas Children’s Nutrition Center in Little Rock, these effects are seen only under certain experimental conditions that are not likely to occur in humans—and therein lies the crux of the debate(a).Equol (4',7-isoflavandiol), an isoflavandiol metabolized from daidzein may be the causes, as 90% of Eastern population are equol producers but only 30% in the West.
The explanation of the positive effect of soy isoflavones in reduced risk of mammary cancers by University of Goettingen may be interesting, as researchers said" Most importantly, there is dispute as to whether isoflavones derived from soyor red clover have negative, positive or any effect at all on the mammary gland or endometrium. It is beyond any doubt that soy products may have cancerpreventing properties in a variety of organs including the mammary gland. However, these properties may only be exerted if the developing organ was under the influence of isoflavones during childhood and puberty".
Soybean is genus Glycine, the family Fabaceae, one of the legumes that contains twice as much protein per acre as any other major vegetable or grain crop, native to Southeast Asia. Now, it is grown worldwide with suitable climate for commercial profit and a a healthy foods.
2. Dietary fiber
5. Essential amino acid
6. Vitamin A
7. Vitamin B6
8. Vitamin B12
9. Vitamin C
10. Vitamin K
E. By Foods to prevent and treat diseases
1. Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA)
Intake of soy protein can enhance the protective effect against Rheumatoid Arthritis. In the study to evaluate preventive and therapeutic effects of soy protein on collagen-induced arthritis rats, showed that Administration of soy protein significantly suppressed the progression of collagen II-induced arthritis and inhibited the production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin6, leptin, and adiponectin. Soy protein appeared to be a potent immunomodulatory inhibitor of collagen II-induced arthritis in rats
2. Polymalagia Arthritis(PMR)
In the study to examine the role of TK activity on the expression of the inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase (iNOS), found that TK inhibition by genistein had no effect on the expression or nuclear translocation of the transcription factors interferon regulatory factor-1 and nuclear factor-KB, respectively, both of which have been implicated in transcriptional regulation of the human iNOS gene. Nuclear run-on analysis demonstrated that the effect of genistein on iNOS messenger RNA expression was not at the level of transcription, suggesting that posttranscriptional regulation of iNOS messenger RNA might be TK dependent.Isoflavones, such as genistein, are useful tools to dissect regulatory pathways in vitro and in vivo and may have potential use as novel antiinflammatory therapeutic agents(2).
3. Ischemic heart disease
Soy sauce is a seasoning produced by fermenting soybeans and filamentous fungus, along with water and salt after a period of sometime, it yields a moromi or thick mash of cereal to obtain soy sauce by pressing it to liquid form. Tamari is made by collecting the liquid which was pressed and the liquid drained drains from miso after a certain time of fermentation.
a. Cardiovascular health
In the investigation of dietary proteins and their effect in heart diseases found that a direct cholesterol lowering effect of proteins has not been shown. Despite earlier research indicating that soy protein has cardioprotective effects as compared to other proteins, these observations have not been confirmed by randomized placebo-controlled trials. However, most experts recommend the consumption offoods rich in plant proteins as alternatives to meat and dairy products rich in saturated fat and containing cholesterol, according to "Dietary proteins and atherosclerosis" by Darioli R.(3)
b. Hypolipidemic effect
In the observation of Soy sauce (Shoyu), a traditional Japanese fermented seasoning and its effect on cholesterol level found that in a 4-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel group study, hyperlipidemic men (TG >150 mg/dl) were treated with 600 mg of SPS (n=15) or placebo (n=15) daily. After 4 weeks, serum TG levels in the SPS-treated group were significantly (P<0.05) lower than the baseline (0 week). In conclusion, SPS of soy sauce reduce lipid absorption, and soy sauce is a potentially promising seasoning for the treatment of hyperlipidemia through food, according to "Hypolipidemic effect of Shoyupolysaccharides from soy sauce in animals and humans" by Kobayashi M, Magishi N, Matsushita H, Hashimoto T, Fujimoto M, Suzuki M, Tsuji K, Saito M, Inoue E, Yoshikawa Y, Matsuura T.(3a).
4. Benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH)
In the study to determine the effects of genistein, a major component of soy, on growth of human-patient benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH) and prostate cancer tissue in three-dimensional collagen gel-supported histoculture, showed that Genistein in doses of 1.25-10 micrograms/ml decreased the growth of BPH tissue in histoculture in a dose-dependent manner, with little additional effect at higher doses. Prostate cancer tissue in histoculture was similarly inhibited by these doses of genistein(4).
Im the study to analyze the relation between dietary intake at baseline and new onset of cough with phlegm in a population-based cohort of 63,257 middle-aged Chinese men and women initiated in Singapore between 1993 and 1998, found that a diet high in fiber from fruit and, possibly, soyfoods may reduce the incidence ofchronic respiratory symptoms. Associated nutrients, such as flavonoids, may contribute to this association(5).
In the study to examine the associations among soy isoflavone intake, estrogen receptor 2 (ESR2) gene polymorphisms and risk of endometriosis, showed that Higher levels of urinary genistein and daidzein were associated with decreased risk of advanced endometriosis (P for trend = 0.01 and 0.06, respectively) but not earlyendometriosis. For advanced endometriosis, the adjusted odds ratio for the highest quartile group was 0.21 (95% confidence interval = 0.06-0.76) for genistein and 0.29 (0.08-1.03) for daidzein, when compared with the lowest group. Inverse associations were also noted between urinary isoflavones and the severity ofendometriosis (P for trend = 0.01 for genistein and 0.07 for daidzein). For advanced endometriosis, ESR2 gene RsaI polymorphism appeared to modify the effects of genistein (P for interaction = 0.03)(6).
Genistein is a soy-derived phytoestrogen. In the study to investigated the significant inhibitory effect of genistein on estradiol (E(2))-induced leiomyoma cells proliferation, indicated that PPARgamma was expressed in ELT-3 cells and genistein acted as PPARgamma ligand. This inhibitory effect of genistein was attenuated by the treatment of cells with PPARgamma antagonist bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE) or GW9662 and suggested that the repressive effect of genistein on E(2)-induced ELT-3 cell proliferation is through the activation of PPARgamma. Genistein may be useful as an alternative therapy for leiomyoma(7).
Some researchers suggested that Shakes that contain soy and shakes that contain casein, when combined with a multidisciplinary fibromyalgia treatment program, provide a decrease in fibromyalgia symptoms. Separation between the effects of soy and casein (control) shakes did not favor the intervention. Therefore, large-sample studies using soy for patients with fibromyalgia are probably not indicated(8).
9. Graves' disease
In the study to investigate the effect of quercetin in primary cultured orbital fibroblasts from GO, targeting pathways of inflammation, aberrant accumulation of extracellular matrix macromolecules, and adipose tissue expansion. showed that Treatment with noncytotoxic doses of quercetin inhibited accumulation of intracytoplasmic lipid droplets and resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) α, and C/EBPβ proteins. In conclusion, inhibition of inflammation, hyaluronan production, and adipogenesis by the natural plant product quercetin in vitro provides the basis for further study of its potential use in the treatment of GO(9).
Quercetin, a ubiquitous plant flavonoid, has been identified to inhibit NS3 activity in a specific dose-dependent manner in an in vitro catalysis assay, showed thatquercetin has a direct inhibitory effect on the HCV NS3 protease. These results point to the potential of quercetin as a natural nontoxic anti-HCV agent reducing viral production by inhibiting both NS3 and heat shock proteins essential for HCV replication(10).
In the study to investigate the anti-hyperlipidemic effect of soy bean extract solution fermented by Bacillus subtilis MORI (BTD-1E) in obese db/db mice, showed that Eight-week-old male db/db mice were administered 33.3 mg/kg BTD-1E solution orally once a day for four weeks. The BTD-1E group showed significantly lower body weight compared with the db control group (P<0.05). The BTD-1E group showed significantly lower serum total cholesterol and LDLcholesterol levels compared with the db control group, respectively (P<0.05, P<0.01). The BTD-1E group showed significantly decreased liver weight relative to final body weight compared with the db control group (P<0.01). After four weeks of BTD-1E administration, lipid droplets in the liver were apparently decreased in the BTD-1E group compared to the db control group. In summary, our results suggest that BTD-1E has an anti-hyperlipidemic effect in the obese mouse model(11).
12. HPV (human papilloma virus)
According to the study of the potential immunomodulatory effects of genistein on the immune system and against TC-1 tumor cell line were evaluated in adult female C57BL/6 mice, Dr. Ghaemi A, and the research team at the Golestan University of Medical Sciences indicated that the effect of GEN on tumor growth may be attributed to its effect on lymphocyte proliferation, cytolytic activity and IFN-γ production. GEN exerts an immunomodulatory effect in a mouse model of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) associated-cervical cancer(12).
in the study to evaluate the antihypertensive potential of soy milk (500 mL twice daily) compared with cow's milk was investigated in a 3-mo double-blind randomized study of 40 men and women with mild-to-moderate hypertension, found that , chronic soy milk consumption had modest, but significant hypotensive action in essential hypertensive subjects. This hypotensive action was correlated with the urinary excretion of the isoflavonoid genistein(13).
14. Irritable bowel syndrome
In the study to evaluate (i) the effects of a phytoestrogen-rich soy germ fermented ingredient (SG) on visceral hypersensitivity, hyperpermeability and other symptoms in stressed intact female rats, (ii) the mechanisms of action involved on the basis of both estrogenic and protease inhibitor activities of SG, researchers showed that A 2-wk oral treatment with SG prevented the stress-induced hyperpermeability and visceral hypersensitivity in cyclic rats through ER activation, and blocked the increase in colonic proteolytic activity, suggesting that SG can be promising in IBS management(14).
15. Lactose intolerance
Modern soy formulas meet all nutritional requirements and safety standards of the Infant Formula Act of 1980. They are commonly used in infants with immunoglobulin E-mediated cow's milk allergy (at least 86% effective), lactose intolerance, galactosemia, and as a vegetarian human milk substitute. Largely as a result of research in animal models, concerns have been voiced regarding isoflavones in soy infant formulas in relation to nutritional adequacy, sexual development, neurobehavioral development, immune function, and thyroid disease, according to the study of Safety of soy-based infant formulas containing isoflavones: the clinical evidence(15).
16. Liver disease
In the stdu8y to evaluate the protective role of soy against CCl(4)-induced liverdamage in rats as four experimental groups were treated for 8 weeks and included the control group,showed that Supplementation with soy succeeded to restore the elevation of liver enzymes activities and improved serum biochemical parameters. Moreover, soy supplementation improved the antioxidant enzymes, decreased lipid peroxidation, and improved the histological picture of the liver tissue. It could be concluded that soy-protein-enriched isoflavones may be a promising agent againstliver diseases(16).
17. Multiple sclerosis
In the study to investigate the use of genistein for the treatment of the murine model of MS showed that genistein treatment ameliorated significantly the clinical symptoms, modulating pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Moreover, we analyzed the leukocyte rolling and adherence in the CNS by performing intravital microscopy. Genistein treatment resulted in decreased rolling and adhering of leukocytes as compared to the untreated group(17).
In the study of Role of dietary soy protein in obesity, researchers at the George Washington University Medical Center, indicated that there were an increasing body of literature suggests that soy protein and its isoflavones may have a beneficial role in obesity. Several nutritional intervention studies in animals and humans indicate that consumption of soy protein reduces body weight and fat mass in addition to lowering plasma cholesterol and triglycerides. In animal models of obesity, soy protein ingestion limits or reduces body fat accumulation and improves insulin resistance, the hallmark of human obesity. In obese humans, dietary soy protein also reduces body weight and body fat mass in addition to reducing plasma lipids(18).
In the study to clarify the effect of ingesting soy isoflavone extracts (not soyprotein or foods containing isoflavones) on bone mineral density (BMD) in menopausal women, found that the varying effects of isoflavones on spine BMD across trials might be associated with study characteristics of intervention duration (6 vs. 12 months), region of participant (Asian vs. Western), and basal BMD (normal bone mass vs. osteopenia or osteoporosis). No significant effects on femoral neck, hip total, and trochanter BMD were found. Soy isoflavone extract supplements increased lumbar spine BMD in menopausal women(19).
20. Parkinson's disease
In the study of the protective effect of the bioflavonoid quercetin on behaviors, antioxidases, and neurotransmitters in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1, 2, 3, 6-tetrahydropyridine-(MPTP-) induced Parkinson's disease (PD, show that quercetintreatment markedly improves the motor balance and coordination of MPTP-treated mice. Significant increases were observed in the activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and Na(+), K(+)-ATPase, AchE, the content of dopamine (DA) in the quercetin plus MPTP groups compared to those in the MPTP group. Significant reduction the 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE) immunoreactivity in striatum of brains was observed in the quercetin plus MPTP groups in comparison to the MPTP group. Taken together, we propose thatquercetin has shown antiparkinsonian properties in our studies. More work is needed to explore detailed mechanisms of action(20)
21. Pelvic inflammatory disease
In the study of Changes in the anti-inflammatory activity of soyisoflavonoidgenistein versus genistein incorporated in two types of cyclodextrin derivatives, found that genistein is an active anti-inflammatory phytocompound andits complexation with hydrophilic beta-cyclodextrin derivatives leads to a stronger antiinflammatoryactivity(21).
22. Premenstrual syndrome
In the study to identify the potential relationship between soy isoflavones and premenstrual syndrome, showed that after two cycles of ISP containing IF intervention, total symptoms (F(2,36) 8.20, P=0.000) and physical symptoms (F(2,36) 8.18, P=0.000) were significantly reduced compared with baseline after both active and placebo treatments, although differences between active and placebo treatment were non-significant. Specific premenstrual symptoms, headache (F(2,32) 4.10, P=0.026) and breast tenderness (F(2,32) 4.59, P=0.018), were reduced from baseline after soy IF, but not milk protein placebo. Cramps (F(2,32) 4.15, P=0.025) and swelling (F(2,32) 4.64, P=0.017) were significantly lower after active treatment compared with placebo. Concentrations of genistein and daidzein were increased following soy IF consumption, but equol production did not enhance symptom reduction(22).
23. Thyroid disorders
In the study to evaluate the relevant literature and provide the clinician guidance for advising their patients about the effects of soy on thyroid function, showed thatsoy foods, by inhibiting absorption, may increase the dose of thyroid hormone required by hypothyroid patients. However, hypothyroid adults need not avoid soyfoods. In addition, there remains a theoretical concern based on in vitro and animal data that in individuals with compromised thyroid function and/or whose iodine intake is marginal soy foods may increase risk of developing clinical hypothyroidism(23). Others suggested that Seaweed ingestion increased I/C concentrations (P < .0001) and serum TSH (P < .0001) (1.69 +/- 0.22 vs. 2.19 +/- 0.22 microU/mL, mean +/- SE). Soy supplementation did not affect thyroid end points. Seven weeks of 5 g/day seaweed supplementation was associated with a small but statistically significant increase in TSH. Soy protein isolate supplementation was not associated with changes in serum thyroid hormone concentrations(23a).
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