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Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome
Unfortunately, according to studies, women with PCOs after the reproductive age, are associated to continuously increase risk of type II diabetes, with no increasingaltered glucose tolerance(20), CVD and hypertension(21).
Diseases associated to PCOs
Hyperprolactinemia and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are on the list of the most frequent causes of female infertility(109).
Prolactin, produced by the anterior pituitary gland primarily plays important breast development during pregnancy and milk production after birth. Hyperprolactinaemia in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) effects the normal function of the hypothalamus and pituitary gland(110), leading to ovulatory infertility(111), decreasing in menstruation and sometimes lost of menstruation(112) and sexual desire(114). In men, hyperprolactinemia has shown a reduction in seminal volume and total sperm count accompanied with a decrease in libido andlost spontaneous erections. and sexual desire(113). But according to Medical University of Lodz, and Medical Centre of Postgraduate Education, "Hyperprolactinemia does not seem to be more frequent in PCOS women than in healthy subjects and it should not be considered as characteristic feature of PCOS- both are distinct clinical entities...."(108).
Chinese medical herbs-Huiru Yizeng Yihao(NO.1 HRYZ), has shown effectively for treatment of sex hormone disorder of hyperprolactinemia and HMG mice models(149).
2. Vagina bleeding
Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) associated to dysfunctional uterinebleeding (DUB) are more common in their extremes of reproductive life(115)(116). According to study, Oral contraceptive pill has a significantly therapeutic effect for treatment in DUB and metrorrhagic forms of PCOS(117)(118). Chinese formulatedherbs product (Kuntai) has shown effectively in alleviating menopausal symptoms of irregular bleeding(150).
3. Ovarian cysts
Women with PCOs Have shown to susceptible to dysfunctional follicular development, with small follicles and cysts(119) of which may interfere with normal conception(120)(121)(122), probably due to angiogenic factors and factors of communication of the interactions between luteal vascular and nonvascular tissues(123). Oral contraceptive users have found to have a lower incidence of ovarian cysts(124)(125)(126). Chinese herbs, Penyan Kang (formula for treating pelvic inflammation) showed effectively in treating of ovarian cyst with no abnormality and adverse effect(127)(128).
Warming acupuncture plus moxibustion combined with oral administration of Quyu Decoction in Chinese traditional medicine therapy significantly increased the cured rate for ovarian cysts, according to Shandong Provincial Institute of TCM,(151).
4. Uterine cancer
According to a joint study, PCOS might increase the risk of uterine cancer in aPCOS cohort consisted of 3,566 patients, and the comparison cohort consisted of 14,264 matched control patients without PCOS(129). But according to David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, there are insufficient data to evaluate any association between PCOS and vaginal, vulvar and cervical cancer or uterineleiomyosarcoma(130). Therefore, a large-scale, well-designed studies are necessary to confirm the association between PCOS and gynecological cancerrisk(129). Herbal Scutellaria barbata D. Don (SB) has been found effectively in anti-tumor proliferation against human uterine leiomyoma(152).
5. Fatty liver diseases(NAFLD)
Women with PCOs, especially to those women are BMI > 25 kg/m², glucose level > 80 mg/dL, E2/T < 80 and ALT > 19 IU/L (134) have shown to associated to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease(131)(132)(133) as a result of abnormal lipid handling by the liver, due to higher triglyceride and cholesterol and lower HDL level(133). Lifestyle interventions and weight loss, accompanied pharmacologic interventions have shown effectively for treatment of NAFL(129). Total alkaloids in herbal Rubus aleaefolius Poir (TARAP)(153), Celastrus orbiculatus Thunb. (COT(154), hawthorn fruit(155) showed effectively in ameliorating high-fat diet-induced NAFLD through antioxidant activities.
The prevalence of hypertension was 19.2% in the women with PCOS, which was much higher than healthy women, in a study of Han Chinese population(136). Young women with PCOS and higher BMI may be at an increased risk ofhypertension, according to the from survey 4 in 2006 (n = 8,612, age of 28-33 years(135) but this result has been challenged by the study at Serviço de Endocrinologia do Hospital das Clínicas da Universidade de São Paulo(137). Certain medical herbs and spices, such as Molle (Schinus molle), Maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp), Caigua (Cyclanthera pedata) and ginger (Zingiber officinale) were found to have highest anti-hypertension through their phenolic profiles, antioxidant activities(156).
7. Insulin resistance(IR)
Epidemiologically(138)(139)(140)(141), strong evidences linking insulin resistance in women with PCOs
may be resulted of pathogenesis involved several associated hormonal pathways(139), including autoimmune thyroid disease(142)(143) or phenotypes(141). Life style interferences, including modest reduction in dietary carbohydrate may be beneficial on body composition, fat distribution, and glucose metabolism, according to University of Alabama at Birmingham(144). Traditional Chinese herbal formula containing Puerariae radix, Lycium barbarum, Crataegus pinnatifida, and Polygonati rhizoma (PLCP), alleviated IR in comparison to metformin, through its actions of phytochemicals puerarin, 3'-methoxypuerarin, daidzin, daidzein, and ononin(157).
8. Cushing's syndrome
PCO and PCOS are common in women with Cushing's syndrome(146). The mimic symptoms such as obesity and insulin resistance, menstrual abnormalities and hyperandrogenism in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) andCushing's syndrome (CS) have caused confusing in diagnosis(147). According to Charles Drew University of Medicine and Science, testosterone levels of <1.39 nmol/L may be useful to discriminate between mild CS and PCOS(148) and hirsutism and menstrual abnormalities were found more common in initial PCOSdiagnosis than in CS(145).
In US, 80% of women with PCOs are found be either over weight of obese, according to statistic(158). Obesity also exhibited complication of some features ofPCOS including hyperandrogenism, hirsutism, infertility and pregnancy (159) and exacerbated many aspects of the phenotype, especially cardiovascular risk factors such as glucose intolerance and dyslipidemia(159). According to Karolinska Institutet, lifestyle interventions to induce weight loss and adjuvant pharmacologic treatments may be the most successful strategy to improve symptoms of PCOS(160). Pi transportation, dampness resolving and phlegm expelling herbs (PTDRPEH) in traditional Chinese effectively reduce body weight and TNF-alpha in the adipose tissue, inhibit fat diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance (IR), through attenuating leptin resistance, and elevating serum levels of leptin and adiponectin(161).
Polycystic ovary syndrome was found to be the most common cause of secondary amenorrhea in Korean women(163) and women in US.(164) with secondary of severe hyperthyroidism. Herbal extracts including Vitex agnus-castus, Cimicifuga racemosa, Tribulus terrestris, Glycyrrhiza spp., Paeonia lactiflora and Cinnamomum cassia in TCM has shown more efective in treating polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) associated oligo/amenorrhoea and hyperandrogenism than pharmaceutical agents bromocriptine (and Vitex agnus-castus) and clomiphene citrate (and Cimicifuga racemosa)(162).
Epidemiologically, linking miscarriage and recurrent miscarriage to PCOs are inclusive(165)(166)(167), but some researchers still insisted that raising levels luteinising hormone (LH), one of the complications in women with PCOs may be associated with increased rates of miscarriage(168)(169)(170). According to Net doctor, Women with raised LH have a 4 fold increased risk of miscarriage(170).
12. Metabolic syndrome
Metabolic syndrome, a collection of symptoms that can lead to diabetes(174)(175) and heart disease(175)(176)(177) has found to be associated to women with PCOs, probably due to genetic mutation of certain genes(171)(172), increased accumulation of adipose tissue and insulin resistance(173). Herbal Coccinia indica and American ginseng, Gymnema sylvestre, Aloe vera, vanadium, Momordica charantia, and nopal and supplement Chromium may be the alternative options for glucose control in patients with diabetes(178), and TCM herbs and herbal formula Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort., Dalbergia odorifera T. Chen and Corydalis yanhusuo WT Wang may also be effective for the treatment of CVD(179).
Infertility is condition of inability of a couple to conceive after 12 months of unprotected sexual intercourse or can not carry the pregnancy to full term. It effects over 7 millions couple alone in the U. S. and many times more in the world, because of unawareness of treatments, only 10% seeks help from professional specialist(181). In fact, approximately 21% - 30% of infertility of a couple is caused by male inability to fertilize(182) with men aged 40 years and older. (According to statistics from US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
* Number of women ages 15-44 with impaired fecundity (impaired ability to get pregnant or carry a baby to term): 6.7 million
* Percent of women ages 15-44 with impaired fecundity: 10.9%
* Number of married women ages 15-44 that are infertile (unable to get pregnant after at least 12 consecutive months of unprotected sex with husband): 1.5 million
* Percent of married women ages 15-44 that are infertile: 6.0%
* Number of women ages 15-44 who have ever used infertility services: 7.4 million)(180).
The infertility rate of women with polycystic ovaries is very high, due to lack of ovulation and others unknown etiology. Medication used for treatment of PCOs infertility include clomiphene citrate(183)(184)(189), metformin(183)(186),letrozole(184)(85)(186)(189), tamoxifen(185)(189), anastrozole(187)(188)....... Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) recipes formulated by Shen-replenishing herbs or acupuncture to reinforce Gan-Shen, regulate Chong-Ren Channels are found effectively in treating infertile and sub fertile PCOs women(191) when they are used alone or in conjunction with Western medicine(190).
14. Irregular menstruation
Menstrual irregularity and/or elevated androgen levels are found to be associated to women with PCOs(192)(193) due to hormone imbalance. According to a self questionnaire survey, irregular menstrual not only already presents in adolescence in women with PCOS and but also induced infertility in later life(194). Medication used for treatment of PCOs irregular menses include oral contraceptive pill(195) and metformin(195)(196). Herbal extracts such as Vitex agnus-castus, Cimicifuga racemosa, Tribulus terrestris, Glycyrrhiza spp., Paeonia lactiflora and Cinnamomum cassia, may be used for treatment in regulation of ovulation, improved metabolic hormone profile(196).
The prevalence of insulin resistance in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), is found to be associated to the critical risk for Type 2 diabetes(198)(199)(200). Insulin-sensitizing medication, such as pioglitazone(202), metformin and thiazolidinediones(203). may be a promising and unique therapeutic option for chronic treatment of PCOS(201). Traditional Chinese acupuncture(204) and herbal formula danzhi xiaoyao pill have shown effectively in reduced PCOs complicated insulin resistance(IR)(205)
Acromegaly is defined as over production of growth hormones caused by a benign(some may behave more aggressive(209) tumor of the pituitary gland(208) and in rare case, it may be caused by tumors of the pancreas, lungs, and adrenal glands, leading to excess GnRH(210), resulting in male pattern hair growth(207). According to University of Athens, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and PCOS phenotype (PCOSP) are relatively common in women with acromegaly and may account for some of the symptoms related to gonadal dysfunction due to hormone IGF-1 or in combination with growth hormone GH and/or insulin resistance(206).
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(1) Adiposity and metabolic dysfunction in polycystic ovary syndrome by Sam S.(PubMed)
(2) A "kiss" before conception: triggering ovulation with kisspeptin-54 may improve IVF by Young SL.(PubMed)
(3.) Androgen hyperfunction and excessive heterosexual hair growth in women, with special attention to the polycystic ovarian syndrome by Lunde O1.(PubMed)
(4) Expression of anti-Müllerian hormone in letrozole rat model of polycystic ovary syndrome by Du DF1, Li XL, Fang F, Du MR.(PubMed)
(5) [Serum levels of anti-muller hormone in women with polycystic ovary syndromeand healthy women of reproductive age].[Article in Bulgarian] by Parahuleva N, Pehlivanov B, Orbecova M, Deneva T, Uchikova E.(PubMed)
(6) [Current opinions on the etiology and pathophysiology of hirsutism].[Article in Polish] by Krysiak R1, Kedzia A, Okopień B.(PubMed)
(7) The clinical evaluation of hirsutism by Somani N1, Harrison S, Bergfeld WF.(PubMed)
(8) Polycystic ovary syndrome and insulin: our understanding in the past, present and future by Mayer SB1, Evans WS, Nestler JE.(PubMed)
(9) Association of mean platelet volume with androgens and insulin resistance in nonobese patients with polycystic ovary syndrome by Dogan BA1, Arduc A2, Tuna MM1, Karakılıc E1, Dagdelen I1, Tutuncu Y1, Berker D1, Guler S1.(PubMed)
(10) Approach to the patient: contraception in women with polycystic ovary syndrome by Yildiz BO1.(PubMed)
(11) Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS): a significant contributor to the overall burden of type 2 diabetes in women by Talbott EO1, Zborowski JV, Rager JR, Kip KE, Xu X, Orchard TJ.(PubMed)
(12) Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in Slovak women with polycystic ovary syndrome and its relation to metabolic and reproductive abnormalities by Figurová J1, Dravecká I, Javorský M, Petríková J, Lazúrová I.(PubMed)
(13) Role of Insulin Sensitizers on Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome: A Meta-Analysis by Thethi TK1, Katalenich B2, Nagireddy P3, Chabbra P4, Kuhadiya N5, Fonseca V1.(PubMed)
(14) Acne in hirsute women by Lumezi BG1, Pupovci HL1, Berisha VL1, Goçi AU2, Gerqari A3.(PubMed)
(15) Obesity and polycystic ovary syndrome by Naderpoor N1, Shorakae S, Joham A, Boyle J, De Courten B, Teede HJ.(PubMed)
(16) Polycystic ovary syndrome: a complex condition with psychological, reproductive and metabolic manifestations that impacts on health across the lifespan by Teede H1, Deeks A, Moran L.(PubMed)
(17) Metabolic Evidence of Diminished Lipid Oxidation in Women With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome. by Whigham LD1, Butz DE2, Dashti H3, Tonelli M3, Johnson LK1, Cook ME2, Porter WP4, Eghbalnia HR5, Markley JL6, Lindheim SR7, Schoeller DA8, Abbott DH9, Assadi-Porter FM10.(PubMed)
(18) Risk of endometrial, ovarian and breast cancer in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis by Barry JA1, Azizia MM1, Hardiman PJ2.(PubMed)
(19) Risk of cancer among women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a Danish cohort study by Gottschau M1, Kjaer SK2, Jensen A1, Munk C1, Mellemkjaer L3.(PubMed)
(20) Polycystic ovary syndrome: metabolic consequences and long-term management by Carmina E1.(PubMed)
(21) Arterial stiffness is increased in asymptomatic nondiabetic postmenopausal women with a polycystic ovary syndrome phenotype by Armeni E1, Stamatelopoulos K, Rizos D, Georgiopoulos G, Kazani M, Kazani A, Kolyviras A, Stellos K, Panoulis K, Alexandrou A, Creatsa M, Papamichael C, Lambrinoudaki I.(PubMed)
(109) Diseases and ConditionsFemale infertility(Mayo clinic)
(110) Chronic alcohol administration increases serum prolactin level and pituitarycell proliferation, and alters hypothalamus neurotransmitters in rat by Li N1, Shi X, Fu S, Zhu F, Yang S.(PubMed)
(111) Individualized high-dose cabergoline therapy for hyperprolactinemic infertilityin women with micro- and macroprolactinomas by Ono M1, Miki N, Amano K, Kawamata T, Seki T, Makino R, Takano K, Izumi S, Okada Y, Hori T.(PubMed)
(112) [Hormonal disorders, menstrual irregularities and future fertility].[Article in German] by Tscherne G1.(PubMed)
(113) Influence of hyperprolactinaemia due to metoclopramide on gonadal function in men by Falaschi P, Frajese G, Sciarra F, Rocco A, Conti C.(PubMed)
(114) Growth hormone, prolactin, and sexuality by Galdiero M1, Pivonello R, Grasso LF, Cozzolino A, Colao A.(PubMed)
(115) Progestogens with or without oestrogen for irregular uterine bleedingassociated with anovulation by Hickey M1, Higham JM, Fraser I.(PubMed)
(116) Excessive uterine bleeding by Talib HJ1, Coupey SM.(PubMed)
(117) [The use of the preparation Anteovin in dysfunctional uterine hemorrhages and PCOS].[Article in Bulgarian] by Kolarov G, Nalbanski B, Orbetsova M, Kamenov Z, Sirakov M, Filipov E.(PubMed)
(118) Androgen and lipid profiles in adolescents with polycystic ovary syndrome who were treated with two forms of combined oral contraceptives by Mastorakos G1, Koliopoulos C, Creatsas G.(PubMed)
(119) Metformin regulates ovarian angiogenesis and follicular development in a female polycystic ovary syndrome rat model by Di Pietro M1, Parborell F, Irusta G, Pascuali N, Bas D, Bianchi MS, Tesone M, Abramovich D.(PubMed)
(120) Molecular aspects of bovine cystic ovarian disease pathogenesis by Ortega HH1, Marelli BE2, Rey F3, Amweg AN4, Diaz PU5, Stangaferro ML6, Salvetti NR7.(PubMed)
(121) Relationship between ovarian cysts and infertility: what surgery and when? by Legendre G1, Catala L2, Morinière C2, Lacoeuille C2, Boussion F2, Sentilhes L2, Descamps P2.(PubMed)
(122) Altered expression of transforming growth factor-beta isoforms in bovine cystic ovarian disease by Matiller V1, Stangaferro ML, Díaz PU, Ortega HH, Rey F, Huber E, Salvetti NR.(PubMed)
(123) Angiogenesis in the ovary by Redmer DA1, Reynolds LP.(PubMed)
(124) Ovarian and endometrial function during hormonal contraception by ESHRE Capri Workshop Group.(PubMed)
(125) Pretreatment with an oral contraceptive is effective in reducing the incidence of functional ovarian cyst formation during pituitary suppression by gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogues by Biljan MM1, Mahutte NG, Dean N, Hemmings R, Bissonnette F, Tan SL.(PubMed)
(126) Ovarian neoplasms, functional ovarian cysts, and oral contraceptives by Vessey M, Metcalfe A, Wells C, McPherson K, Westhoff C, Yeates D.(PubMed)
(127) Treating ovarian cysts with Chinese herbs: a case report by Qu F1, Zhou J, Yu Y, Linc Q, Jiang YM.(PubMed)
(128) Treating adolescent ovarian cysts with Chinese herbs: a case report by Qu F1, Zhou J, Huang H.(PubMed)
(129) A nationwide population-based retrospective cohort study of the risk ofuterine, ovarian and breast cancer in women with polycystic ovary syndrome by Shen CC1, Yang AC1, Hung JH1, Hu LY1, Tsai SJ2.(PubMed)
(130) Cancer risk and PCOS by Dumesic DA1, Lobo RA.(PubMed)
(131) Review of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in women with polycystic ovary syndrome by Kelley CE1, Brown AJ1, Diehl AM1, Setji TL1.(PubMed)
(132) Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and polycystic ovary syndrome by Vassilatou E1.(PubMed)
(133) An association between non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and polycystic ovarian syndrome by Brzozowska MM1, Ostapowicz G, Weltman MD.(PubMed)
(134) Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in women with polycystic ovary syndrome - clinical and metabolic aspects and lipoprotein lipase gene polymorphism by Bohdanowicz-Pawlak A1, Lenarcik-Kabza A, Brona A, Kuliczkowska-Płaksej J, Łaczmański Ł, Zaleska-Dorobisz U, Milewicz A.(PubMed)
(135) Hypertension in Reproductive-Aged Women With Polycystic Ovary Syndromeand Association With Obesity by Joham AE1, Boyle JA2, Zoungas S1, Teede HJ3.(PubMed)
(136) Hypertension in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: prevalence and associated cardiovascular risk factors by Shi Y1, Cui Y2, Sun X3, Ma G4, Ma Z4, Gao Q4, Chen ZJ5.(PubMed)
(137) Polycystic ovary syndrome and obesity do not affect vascular parameters related to early atherosclerosis in young women without glucose metabolism disturbances, arterial hypertension and severe abnormalities of lipid profile by Barcellos CR1, Lage SH, Rocha MP, Hayashida SA, Baracat EC, Romano A, Brito VN, Marcondes JA.(PubMed)
(138) Metabolic risk in PCOS: phenotype and adiposity impact by Moran LJ1, Norman RJ2, Teede HJ3.(PubMed)
(139)Polycystic ovary syndrome: a review for dermatologists: Part I. Diagnosis and manifestations by Housman E1, Reynolds RV2.(PubMed)
(140) Hormonal contraceptive choice for women with PCOS: a systematic review of randomized trials and observational studies by Mendoza N1, Simoncini T, Genazzani AD.(PubMed)
(141) Insulin resistance and endocrine characteristics of the different phenotypes of polycystic ovary syndrome: a prospective study by Panidis D1, Tziomalos K, Misichronis G, Papadakis E, Betsas G, Katsikis I, Macut D.(PubMed)
(142) Thyroid disorders and polycystic ovary syndrome: An emerging relationship by Singla R1, Gupta Y2, Khemani M3, Aggarwal S4.(PubMed)
(143) Subclinical hypothyroidism and insulin resistance in polycystic ovary syndrome: is there a relationship by Enzevaei A1, Salehpour S1, Tohidi M2, Saharkhiz N1.(PubMed)
(144) A lower-carbohydrate, higher-fat diet reduces abdominal and intermuscular fat and increases insulin sensitivity in adults at risk of type 2 diabetes by Gower BA1, Goss AM2.(PubMed)
(145) Polycystic ovarian syndrome and Cushing's syndrome: a persistent diagnostic quandary by Brzana J1, Yedinak CG2, Hameed N1, Plesiu A1, McCartney S2, Fleseriu M3.(PubMed)
(146) How common are polycystic ovaries and the polycystic ovarian syndrome in women with Cushing's syndrome? by Kaltsas GA1, Korbonits M, Isidori AM, Webb JA, Trainer PJ, Monson JP, Besser GM, Grossman AB.(PubMed)
(147) Screening for Cushing's syndrome in obese women with and without polycystic ovary syndrome by Putignano P1, Bertolini M, Losa M, Cavagnini F.(PubMed)
(148) Testosterone and bioavailable testosterone help to distinguish between mildCushing's syndrome and polycystic ovarian syndrome by Pall ME1, Lao MC, Patel SS, Lee ML, Ghods DE, Chandler DW, Friedman TC.(PubMed)
(149) Effect of Chinese medical herbs-Huiru Yizeng Yihao on hyperprolactinemiaand hyperplasia of mammary gland in mice by Wang X1, Chen YG, Ma L, Li ZH, Li JY, Liu XG, Zou JL, Wu JH.(PubMed)
(150) [Profiles of irregular bleeding induced by low-dose hormone therapy and Chinese formulated herbs products].[Article in Chinese] by Wang SH1, Lin SQ, Gui QF, Jin MJ, Jiang Y.(PubMed)
(151) [Observation on therapeutic effect of warming acupuncture and moxibustion combined with Chinese drugs on ovarian cysts].[Article in Chinese] by Li YM1, Song LZ, Wang P, Jiang HJ.(PubMed)
(152) Inhibitory effects of Scutellaria barbata D. Don on human uterine leiomyomal smooth muscle cell proliferation through cell cycle analysis by Lee TK1, Lee DK, Kim DI, Lee YC, Chang YC, Kim CH.(PubMed)
(153) Treatment of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease with Total Alkaloids in Rubus aleaefolius Poir through Regulation of Fat Metabolism by Li Y1, Zhao J2, Zheng H3, Zhong X2, Zhou J3, Hong Z2.(PubMed)
(154) Celastrus orbiculatus Thunb. ameliorates high-fat diet-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in guinea pigs by Zhang Y1, Si Y, Zhai L, Yang N, Yao S, Sang H, Zu D, Xu X, Qin S, Wang J.(PubMed)
(155) Traditional Chinese medicines benefit to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis by Shi KQ1, Fan YC, Liu WY, Li LF, Chen YP, Zheng MH.(PubMed)
(156) Phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity and in vitro inhibitory potential against key enzymes relevant for hyperglycemia and hypertension of commonly used medicinal plants, herbs and spices in Latin America by Ranilla LG1, Kwon YI, Apostolidis E, Shetty K.(PubMed)
(157) A diet formula of Puerariae radix, Lycium barbarum, Crataegus pinnatifida, and Polygonati rhizoma alleviates insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis in CD-1 mice and HepG2 cells by Liu J1, Zhang H, Ji B, Cai S, Wang R, Zhou F, Yang J, Liu H.(PubMed)
(158) Obesity and Polycystic Ovary Syndrome by Susan Sam, MD(PubMed)
(159) The role of obesity in the development of polycystic ovary syndrome by Motta AB(PubMed)
(160) Polycystic ovary syndrome, obesity and reproductive implications by Hirschberg AL. (PubMed)
(161) [Effect of Pi transportation, dampness resolving and phlegm expelling herbs on the obesity degree, fat hormones, and leptin resistance in diet-induced obesity rats].[Article in Chinese] by Jiang P, Jiang YH.(PubMed)
(162) Herbal medicine for the management of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and associated oligo/amenorrhoea and hyperandrogenism; a review of the laboratory evidence for effects with corroborative clinical findings by Arentz S, Abbott JA, Smith CA, Bensoussan A.(PubMed)
(163) Causes of amenorrhea in Korea: Experience of a single large center by Kwon SK1, Chae HD1, Lee KH1, Kim SH1, Kim CH1, Kang BM1.(PubMed)
(164) Amenorrhea: An Approach to Diagnosis and Management DAVID A. KLEIN, MD, MPH, San Antonio Military Medical Center, San Antonio, Texas MERRILY A. POTH, MD, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland Am Fam Physician. 2013 Jun 1;87(11):781-788.(The American physician)
(165) The role of serum testosterone in early pregnancy outcome: a comparison in women with and without polycystic ovary syndrome by Lathi RB1, Dahan MH2, Reynolds-May MF3, Milki AA1, Behr B1, Westphal LM1.(PubMed)
(166) The polycystic ovary syndrome does not predict further miscarriage in Japanese couples experiencing recurrent miscarriages by Sugiura-Ogasawara M1, Sato T, Suzumori N, Kitaori T, Kumagai K, Ozaki Y.(PubMed)
(167) Polycystic ovaries and levels of gonadotrophins and androgens in recurrent miscarriage: prospective study in 50 women by Tulppala M1, Stenman UH, Cacciatore B, Ylikorkala O.(PubMed)
(168)Dysregulation of ovarian follicular development in female rat: LH decreases FSH sensitivity during preantral-early antral transition by Orisaka M1, Hattori K, Fukuda S, Mizutani T, Miyamoto K, Sato T, Tsang BK, Kotsuji F, Yoshida Y.(PubMed)
(169) The prognostic value of basal luteinizing hormone:follicle-stimulating hormone ratio in the treatment of patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome by assisted reproduction techniques by Tarlatzis BC1, Grimbizis G, Pournaropoulos F, Bontis J, Lagos S, Spanos E, Mantalenakis S.(PubMed)
(170) Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (Net doctor)
(171) 54G/C polymorphism of SREBF-1 gene is associated with polycystic ovary syndrome by Li L1, Yun JH1, Ryoo JE2, Lee KJ3, Choi BC4, Baek KH5.(PubMed)
(172) Association study of polymorphism of FXIIIVal34Leu gene and polycystic ovary syndrome by Wang X1, Yang Y1, Huang Y2, Wang Q3.(PubMed)
(173) Adiposity and metabolic dysfunction in polycystic ovary syndrome by Sam S.(PubMed)
(174) PCOS in adolescence and type 2 diabetes by Carreau AM1, Baillargeon JP.(PubMed)
(175) Polycystic ovary syndrome: a complex condition with psychological, reproductive and metabolic manifestations that impacts on health across the lifespan by Teede H1, Deeks A, Moran L.(PubMed)
(176) New paradigms in PCOS: impaired glucose tolerance and cardiovascular risk. Clinical approach by Ravn P1.(PubMed)
(177) Cardiometabolic aspects of the polycystic ovary syndrome by Randeva HS1, Tan BK, Weickert MO, Lois K, Nestler JE, Sattar N, Lehnert H.(PubMed)
(178) Systematic review of herbs and dietary supplements for glycemic control indiabetes by Yeh GY1, Eisenberg DM, Kaptchuk TJ, Phillips RS.(PubMed)
(179) A systems biology approach to understanding the mechanisms of action of chinese herbs for treatment of cardiovascular disease by Li B1, Xu X, Wang X, Yu H, Li X, Tao W, Wang Y, Yang L.(PubMed)
(181) Why Do So Few Couples Seek Infertility Treatment? By Jacky Boivin, PhD. Fall 2007
(182) Fertility and the Aging Male by Isiah D Harris, MD,1 Carolyn Fronczak,2Lauren Roth, MD,1 and Randall B Meacham, MD(PubMed)
(183) Status of clomiphene citrate and metformin for infertility in PCOS by Misso ML1, Teede HJ, Hart R, Wong J, Rombauts L, Melder AM, Norman RJ, Costello MF.(PubMed)
(184) Clomiphene citrate or letrozole for ovulation induction in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome: a prospective randomized trial by Badawy A1, Abdel Aal I, Abulatta M.(PubMed)
(185) Comparison of letrozole versus tamoxifen effects in clomiphen citrate resistant women with polycystic ovarian syndrome by El-Gharib MN1, Mahfouz AE1, Farahat MA1(PubMed)
(186) Clomiphene citrate or letrozole for ovulation induction in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome: a prospective randomized trial by Badawy A1, Abdel Aal I, Abulatta M.(PubMed)
(187) Anastrozole or letrozole for ovulation induction in clomiphene-resistant women with polycystic ovarian syndrome: a prospective randomized trial by Badawy A1, Mosbah A, Shady M.(PubMed)
(188) Aromatase inhibitors for ovulation and pregnancy in polycystic ovary syndrome by Eckmann KR1, Kockler DR.(PubMed)
(189) Comparison of the effectiveness of clomiphene citrate, tamoxifen and letrozole in ovulation induction in infertility due to isolated unovulation by Seyedoshohadaei F1, Zandvakily F1, Shahgeibi S1.(PubMed)
(190) Progress of integrative Chinese and Western medicine in treating polycystic ovarian syndrome caused infertility by Song JJ1, Yan ME, Wu XK, Hou LH.(PubMed)
(191) Chinese herbal medicine for subfertile women with polycystic ovarian syndrome by Zhang J1, Li T, Zhou L, Tang L, Xu L, Wu T, Lim DC.(PubMed)
(192) Comprehensive clinical management of polycystic ovary syndrome by Setji TL1, Brown AJ.(PubMed)
(193) Polycystic ovary syndrome by Kahn JA1, Gordon CM.(PubMed)
(194) Irregular menstruation and hyperandrogenaemia in adolescence are associated with polycystic ovary syndrome and infertility in later life: Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 study by West S1, Lashen H2, Bloigu A3, Franks S4, Puukka K5, Ruokonen A5, Järvelin MR6, Tapanainen JS7, Morin-Papunen L8.(PubMed)
(195) Randomized clinical trial evaluating metformin versus oral contraceptive pills in the treatment of adolescents with polycystic ovarian syndrome by Al-Zubeidi H, Klein KO.(PubMed)
(196) The effects of treatment with drospirenone/ethinyl oestradiol alone or in combination with metformin on elastic properties of aorta in women with polycystic ovary syndrome by Kaya MG1, Calapkorur B, Karaca Z, Yildirim S, Celik A, Akpek M, Unluhizarci K, Kelestimur F.(PubMed)
(197) Herbal medicine for the management of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and associated oligo/amenorrhoea and hyperandrogenism; a review of the laboratory evidence for effects with corroborative clinical findings by Arentz S, Abbott JA, Smith CA, Bensoussan A.(PubMed)
(198) Polycystic ovary syndrome and insulin: our understanding in the past, present and future by Mayer SB1, Evans WS, Nestler JE.(PubMed)
(199) PCOS in adolescence and type 2 diabetes by Carreau AM1, Baillargeon JP.(PubMed)
(200) New paradigms in PCOS: impaired glucose tolerance and cardiovascular risk. Clinical approach. Ravn P1.(PubMed)
(201) Prevention of diabetes and cardiovascular disease in women with PCOS: treatment with insulin sensitizers by Sharma ST1, Nestler JE.(PubMed)
(202) Effects of the insulin sensitizer pioglitazone on menstrual irregularity, insulin resistance and hyperandrogenism in young women with polycystic ovary syndrome. by Stabile G1, Borrielli I2, Artenisio AC1, Bruno LM1, Benvenga S1, Giunta L1, La Marca A3, Volpe A3, Pizzo A4.(PubMed)
(203) Insulin sensitizers in polycystic ovary syndrome by Pasquali R1, Gambineri A.(PubMed)
(204) [A meta-analysis on acupuncture treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome]. [Article in Chinese] by Ren LN, Guo LH, Ma WZ, Zhang R.(PubMed)
(205) [Effect of danzhi xiaoyao pill on ovulation induction of polycystic ovarian syndrome patients of pathogenic fire derived from stagnation of gan-qi]. [Article in Chinese] by Liu Y1, Mao LH.(PubMed)
(206) Polycystic ovaries and the polycystic ovary syndrome phenotype in women with active acromegaly by Kaltsas GA1, Androulakis II, Tziveriotis K, Papadogias D, Tsikini A, Makras P, Dimitriou K, Stathopoulou A, Piaditis G.(PubMed)
(207() Acromegaly presenting as hirsuitism: Uncommon sinister aetiology of a common clinical sign by Jain R1, Dutta D, Shivaprasad K, Maisnam I, Ghosh S, Mukhopadhyay S, Chowdhury S.(PubMed)
(208) Acromegaly(UCLA health)
(209) Aggressive tumors and difficult choices in acromegaly by Carrasco CA1, Gadelha M, Manavela M, Bruno OD.(PubMed)
(211) Effects of an oral contraceptive containing estradiol valerate and dienogest on circulating androgen levels and acne in young patients with PCOS: an observational preliminary study by Di Carlo C1, Gargano V, Sparice S, Tommaselli GA, Bifulco G, Nappi C.(PubMed)