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Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome
Unfortunately, according to studies, women with PCOs after the reproductive age, are associated to continuously increase risk of type II diabetes, with no increasingaltered glucose tolerance(20), CVD and hypertension(21).
The prevention and management
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is unpreventable in Western medicine. Early diagnosis and treatment may reduce risk of its complications, including infertility, metabolic syndrome, obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, stroke, etc.
Although PCOS cannot be completely avoided, strengthening immunity has shown a significant reduction of chronic inflammatory diseases(266)(267)(268).
The Common Antioxidants
Flavonoids also known as Vitamin P and citrin are a yellow pigments having a structure similar to that of flavones occurred in varies plants. used in human history for over thousands of years for breakage of capillaries causes of swelling and obstruction of blood flow(553).
Flavonoids process a property as antioxidants for neutralization of many of reactive oxygen species (ROS)(554)(555), including singlet oxygen(556), hydroxyl(557) radicals involved chronic inflammatory diseases(558)(559).
Although nitric oxide is considered a free radical produced by immune system to destroy bacteria induced infection(561), over production can cause increased peroxynitrite which may attack protein, lipid and DNA(560). Flavonoids inhibit NO production of peroxynitrite through various antioxidant enzymes(562).
Quercetin is a plant-derived flavonoid found in fruits, vegetables, leaves and grains and studies show that quercetin may have anti-inflammatory(563)(564) and antioxidant(565)(566) properties as a antioxidant, quercetin scavenges free radicals(567), which damage cells (568) and cause mutation of cells with tampering DNA(569)(570).
Rutin is a citrus flavonoid glycoside found in buckwheat and glycoside of the flavonoid quercetin. It inhibits platelet aggregation(571), decreases the capillary permeability(572), makes blood thinner and improves circulation. As an antioxidant, it also reduces the cytotoxicity of oxidized LDL cholesterol(573) triggered atherogenesis and the risks of other chronic inflammatory diseases(574)(575)(576).
Catechin is a natural phenol antioxidant and natural anti-bacterial substance. Study showed catechin as good free radical scavenging power inhibits ROS production(577), may be be useful to the development of alimentary strategies to prevent ochratoxin A (OTA) cytotoxicity in human(578). As an antixidant, catchin also process anti inflammatory effects against many chronic inflammatory illness(579)(580)(581)(582).
4. Coenzyme Q10
Coenzyme Q10 is discovered by Dr. Karl Folfers in 1957, serves as fuel for the cells(583) and acts an antioxidant to prevent the generation of free radicals during this process(584) induced numbers of chronic inflammatory diseases, such as diabetes(585)(586), cardiovascular(587)(588) and Parkinson's disease(589)(590). The antioxidanr also was found effectivetively in the treatment of clomiphene-citrate-resistant PCOS patients through improving ovulation and clinical pregnancy rates when use combination with clomiphene citrate(591).
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(1) Adiposity and metabolic dysfunction in polycystic ovary syndrome by Sam S.(PubMed)
(2) A "kiss" before conception: triggering ovulation with kisspeptin-54 may improve IVF by Young SL.(PubMed)
(3.) Androgen hyperfunction and excessive heterosexual hair growth in women, with special attention to the polycystic ovarian syndrome by Lunde O1.(PubMed)
(4) Expression of anti-Müllerian hormone in letrozole rat model of polycystic ovary syndrome by Du DF1, Li XL, Fang F, Du MR.(PubMed)
(5) [Serum levels of anti-muller hormone in women with polycystic ovary syndromeand healthy women of reproductive age].[Article in Bulgarian] by Parahuleva N, Pehlivanov B, Orbecova M, Deneva T, Uchikova E.(PubMed)
(6) [Current opinions on the etiology and pathophysiology of hirsutism].[Article in Polish] by Krysiak R1, Kedzia A, Okopień B.(PubMed)
(7) The clinical evaluation of hirsutism by Somani N1, Harrison S, Bergfeld WF.(PubMed)
(8) Polycystic ovary syndrome and insulin: our understanding in the past, present and future by Mayer SB1, Evans WS, Nestler JE.(PubMed)
(9) Association of mean platelet volume with androgens and insulin resistance in nonobese patients with polycystic ovary syndrome by Dogan BA1, Arduc A2, Tuna MM1, Karakılıc E1, Dagdelen I1, Tutuncu Y1, Berker D1, Guler S1.(PubMed)
(10) Approach to the patient: contraception in women with polycystic ovary syndrome by Yildiz BO1.(PubMed)
(11) Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS): a significant contributor to the overall burden of type 2 diabetes in women by Talbott EO1, Zborowski JV, Rager JR, Kip KE, Xu X, Orchard TJ.(PubMed)
(12) Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in Slovak women with polycystic ovary syndrome and its relation to metabolic and reproductive abnormalities by Figurová J1, Dravecká I, Javorský M, Petríková J, Lazúrová I.(PubMed)
(13) Role of Insulin Sensitizers on Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome: A Meta-Analysis by Thethi TK1, Katalenich B2, Nagireddy P3, Chabbra P4, Kuhadiya N5, Fonseca V1.(PubMed)
(14) Acne in hirsute women by Lumezi BG1, Pupovci HL1, Berisha VL1, Goçi AU2, Gerqari A3.(PubMed)
(15) Obesity and polycystic ovary syndrome by Naderpoor N1, Shorakae S, Joham A, Boyle J, De Courten B, Teede HJ.(PubMed)
(16) Polycystic ovary syndrome: a complex condition with psychological, reproductive and metabolic manifestations that impacts on health across the lifespan by Teede H1, Deeks A, Moran L.(PubMed)
(17) Metabolic Evidence of Diminished Lipid Oxidation in Women With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome. by Whigham LD1, Butz DE2, Dashti H3, Tonelli M3, Johnson LK1, Cook ME2, Porter WP4, Eghbalnia HR5, Markley JL6, Lindheim SR7, Schoeller DA8, Abbott DH9, Assadi-Porter FM10.(PubMed)
(18) Risk of endometrial, ovarian and breast cancer in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis by Barry JA1, Azizia MM1, Hardiman PJ2.(PubMed)
(19) Risk of cancer among women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a Danish cohort study by Gottschau M1, Kjaer SK2, Jensen A1, Munk C1, Mellemkjaer L3.(PubMed)
(20) Polycystic ovary syndrome: metabolic consequences and long-term management by Carmina E1.(PubMed)
(21) Arterial stiffness is increased in asymptomatic nondiabetic postmenopausal women with a polycystic ovary syndrome phenotype by Armeni E1, Stamatelopoulos K, Rizos D, Georgiopoulos G, Kazani M, Kazani A, Kolyviras A, Stellos K, Panoulis K, Alexandrou A, Creatsa M, Papamichael C, Lambrinoudaki I.(PubMed)
(266) [Immunopathological responses in women with chronic inflammatorydiseases of the uterus and appendages and their therapeutic correction].[Article in Russian] by Medvedev BI1, Kazachkova EA, Kazachkov EL.(PubMed)
(267) Cross Talk Between ER Stress, Oxidative Stress, and Inflammation in Health and Disease by Dandekar A1, Mendez R, Zhang K.(PubMed)
(268) New dog and new tricks: evolving roles for IL-33 in type 2 immunity by Lott JM1, Sumpter TL1, Turnquist HR2.(PubMed)
(553) THE HIERARCHY OF FLAVONOID ANTIOXIDANT POTENTIALS/2003 Nita Bishop, N.D. Presented ! at AANP (American ! Association of ! Naturopathic Physicians) Convention 2003 ! in Portland, ! Oregon
(554) Apoptosis Induction by the Total Flavonoids from Arachniodes exilis in HepG2 Cells through Reactive Oxygen Species-Mediated Mitochondrial Dysfunction Involving MAPK Activation by Li H1, Chen J2, Xiong C2, Wei H2, Yin C3, Ruan J2.(PubMed)
(555) Tissue injury by reactive oxygen species and the protective effects offlavonoids by de Groot H1, Rauen U.(PubMed)
(556) Antioxidant activity of flavonoids: efficiency of singlet oxygen (1 delta g) quenching by Tournaire C1, Croux S, Maurette MT, Beck I, Hocquaux M, Braun AM, Oliveros E.(PubMed)
(557) Hydroxyl radical scavenging assay of phenolics and flavonoids with a modified cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) method using catalase for hydrogen peroxide degradation by Ozyürek M1, Bektaşoğlu B, Güçlü K, Apak R.(PubMed)
(558) Phytochemicals and their potential usefulness in inflammatory bowel diseaseby Somani SJ1, Modi KP, Majumdar AS, Sadarani BN.(PubMed)
(559) Kolaviron, a biflavonoid complex of Garcinia kola seeds modulates apoptosis by suppressing oxidative stress and inflammation in diabetes-induced nephrotoxic rats by Ayepola OR1, Cerf ME2, Brooks NL3, Oguntibeju OO4.(PubMed)
(560) Nitric oxide and peroxynitrite in health and disease by Pacher P1, Beckman JS, Liaudet L.(PubMed)
(561) The effects of nitric oxide on the immune system during Trypanosoma cruzi infection by Gutierrez FR1, Mineo TW, Pavanelli WR, Guedes PM, Silva JS.(PubMed)
(562) Flavonoids in prevention of diseases with respect to modulation of Ca-pump function by Lubica Horáková(PubMed)
(563) Anti-inflammatory effects of flavonoids: genistein, kaempferol, quercetin, and daidzein inhibit STAT-1 and NF-kappaB activations, whereas flavone, isorhamnetin, naringenin, and pelargonidin inhibit only NF-kappaB activation along with their inhibitory effect on iNOS expression and NO production in activated macrophages by Hämäläinen M1, Nieminen R, Vuorela P, Heinonen M, Moilanen E.(PubMed)
(564) The anti-inflammatory flavones quercetin and kaempferol cause inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase-2 and reactive C-protein, and down-regulation of the nuclear factor kappaB pathway in Chang Liver cells by García-Mediavilla V1, Crespo I, Collado PS, Esteller A, Sánchez-Campos S, Tuñón MJ, González-Gallego J.(PubMed)
(565) Plasma metabolites of quercetin and their antioxidant properties by Morand C1, Crespy V, Manach C, Besson C, Demigné C, Rémésy C.(PubMed)
(566) Antioxidant evaluation of O-methylated metabolites of catechin, epicatechin and quercetin by Dueñas M1, González-Manzano S, González-Paramás A, Santos-Buelga C.(PubMed)
(567) Bioflavonoid quercetin scavenges superoxide and increases nitric oxide concentration in ischaemia-reperfusion injury: an experimental study by Huk I1, Brovkovych V, Nanobash Vili J, Weigel G, Neumayer C, Partyka L, Patton S, Malinski T.(PubMed)
(568) Neuroprotective role of nanoencapsulated quercetin in combating ischemia-reperfusion induced neuronal damage in young and aged rats by Ghosh A1, Sarkar S, Mandal AK, Das N.(PubMed)
(569) Quercetin and hyperthermia modulate cisplatin-induced DNA damage in tumor and normal tissues in vivo by Oršolić N1, Car N.(PubMed)
(570) The effect of quercetin on oxidative DNA damage and myelosuppression induced by etoposide in bone marrow cells of rats by Papież MA1.(PubMed)
(571) Effect of Scutia buxifolia Reissek in nucleotidase activities and inhibition ofplatelet aggregation by Boligon AA1, Pimentel VC, Bagatini MD, Athayde ML.(PubMed)
(572) [Effect of rutin (rutinion) on capillary permeability].[Article in Undetermined Language] by BLAICH W, TUSHAUS B.(PubMed)
(573) Differential inhibition of oxidized LDL-induced apoptosis in human endothelial cells treated with different flavonoids by Jeong YJ1, Choi YJ, Kwon HM, Kang SW, Park HS, Lee M, Kang YH.(PubMed)
(574) The antioxidant effects of the flavonoids rutin and quercetin inhibit oxaliplatin-induced chronic painful peripheral neuropathy by Azevedo MI, Pereira AF, Nogueira RB, Rolim FE, Brito GA, Wong DV, Lima-Júnior RC, de Albuquerque Ribeiro R, Vale ML1.(PubMed)
(575) Rutin protects against cognitive deficits and brain damage in rats withchronic cerebral hypoperfusion by Qu J1, Zhou Q, Du Y, Zhang W, Bai M, Zhang Z, Xi Y, Li Z, Miao J.(PubMed)
(576) Anti-inflammatory and antioxidative effects of the methanolic extract of the aerial parts of Mitracarpus frigidus in established animal models by Fabri RL1, Garcia RA, Florêncio JR, de Castro Campos Pinto N, de Oliveira LG, Aguiar JA, Ribeiro A, Scio E.(PubMed)
(577) Synergistic antioxidant effect of catechin and malvidin 3-glucoside on free radical-initiated peroxidation of linoleic acid in micelles by Rossetto M1, Vanzani P, Mattivi F, Lunelli M, Scarpa M, Rigo A.(PubMed)
(578) Protective role of oligonol from oxidative stress-induced inflammation in C6 glial cell by Ahn JH1, Choi JW1, Choi JM1, Maeda T2, Fujii H2, Yokozawa T3, Cho EJ1.(PubMed)
(579) Catechins: natural free-radical scavengers against ochratoxin A-induced cell damage in a pig kidney cell line (LLC-PK1) by Costa S1, Utan A, Cervellati R, Speroni E, Guerra MC.(PubMed)
(580) Periodontal pathogens and atherosclerosis: implications of inflammation and oxidative modification of LDL by Kurita-Ochiai T1, Yamamoto M1.(PubMed)
(581) UP446, analgesic and anti-inflammatory botanical composition by Yimam M1, Brownell L, Pantier M, Jia Q.(PubMed)
(582) In vitro anti-inflammatory activity of phenolic rich extracts from white and red common beans by García-Lafuente A1, Moro C2, Manchón N2, Gonzalo-Ruiz A3, Villares A2, Guillamón E2, Rostagno M2, Mateo-Vivaracho L2.(PubMed)
(583) A combination of lipoic acid plus coenzyme Q10 induces PGC1α, a master switch of energy metabolism, improves stress response, and increases cellular glutathione levels in cultured C2C12 skeletal muscle cells by Wagner AE1, Ernst IM, Birringer M, Sancak O, Barella L, Rimbach G.(PubMed)
(584) Coenzyme q10 in combination with triple therapy regimens ameliorates oxidative stress and lipid peroxdiation in chronic gastritis associated with H. pylori infection by Rahmani A1, Abangah G, Moradkhani A, Hafezi Ahmadi MR, Asadollahi K.(PubMed)
(585) Coenzyme Q10 improves blood pressure and glycaemic control: a controlled trial in subjects with type 2 diabetes by Hodgson JM1, Watts GF, Playford DA, Burke V, Croft KD.(PubMed)
(586) The reduced form of coenzyme Q10 improves glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes: an open label pilot study by Mezawa M1, Takemoto M, Onishi S, Ishibashi R, Ishikawa T, Yamaga M, Fujimoto M, Okabe E, He P, Kobayashi K, Yokote K.(PubMed)
(587) Lower plasma Coenzyme Q10 in depression: a marker for treatment resistance and chronic fatigue in depression and a risk factor to cardiovasculardisorder in that illness by Maes M1, Mihaylova I, Kubera M, Uytterhoeven M, Vrydags N, Bosmans E.(PubMed)
(588) Coenzyme Q10 in cardiovascular disease by Pepe S1, Marasco SF, Haas SJ, Sheeran FL, Krum H, Rosenfeldt FL.(PubMed)
(589) Coenzyme Q10 for Parkinson's disease by Liu J1, Wang L, Zhan SY, Xia Y.(PubMed)
(590) The Effect of Creatine and Coenzyme Q10 Combination Therapy on Mild Cognitive Impairment in Parkinson's Disease by Li Z1, Wang P, Yu Z, Cong Y, Sun H, Zhang J, Zhang J, Sun C, Zhang Y, Ju X.(PubMed)
(591) Combined coenzyme Q10 and clomiphene citrate for ovulation induction in clomiphene-citrate-resistant polycystic ovary syndrome by El Refaeey A1, Selem A2, Badawy A3.(PubMed)