Thursday, June 23, 2016

Traditional Chinese Medicine Herbal Therapy - Popular Chinese Herbs - Chen Pi

Kyle J. Norton(Scholar and Master of Nutrients, all right reserved)
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
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                                   Chen Pi

Chen Pi is also known as Tangerine Peel, the bitter, acrid and warm herb has been used in Traditional Chinese medicine to improve digestion, stop vomiting, hiccups and bleeding increase blood pressure, stimulate blood vessels, regulate movement of uterus, as it regulate the movement of Qi, Middle burner, dries Dampness, transforms Phlegm, etc., by enhancing the functions of lung and spleen channels.

1. d-limonene
2. β-myrcene
3. α-thujene
4. α-pinene
5. β-pinene
6. β-myrcene
7. α-terpinene
8. Linalool
9. Thymol
10. Citronellal
11. Citral
12. Hesperidin
13. Neohesperidin
14. Tangeretin,5,6,7,8,4’-pentamethoxyflavone
15. Nobiletin
16. Tangeretin
17. Etc.

Health Benefits
1. Anti obesity Effects and Hepatic steatosis
in the investigation of the antiobesity activity of immature C. sunki peel extract (designated CSE) using high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese C57BL/6 mice and mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes, found that CSE supplementation reduced serum levels of glutamic pyruvic transaminase, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, and lactate dehydrogenase. Moreover, it significantly decreased the accumulation of fatty droplets in liver tissue, suggesting a protective effect against HFD-induced hepatic steatosis. Dietary supplementation with CSE reversed the HFD-induced decrease in the phosphorylation levels of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), which are related to fatty acid β-oxidation, in the epididymal adipose tissue. Also, CSE increased AMPK and ACC phosphorylation in mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes. CSE also enhanced lipolysis by phosphorylation of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) in mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes, according to “Immature Citrus sunki Peel Extract Exhibits Antiobesity Effects by β-Oxidation and Lipolysis in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice” by Kang SI, Shin HS, Kim HM, Hong YS, Yoon SA, Kang SW, Kim JH, Kim MH, Ko HC, Kim SJ.(1).

2. Antioxidant effects
In the evaluation of the antioxidant effects of fresh juice and peel extract of Citrus aurantifolia (Christm), found that 5 μl of lime juice didn’t change LDL oxidation. 10 μl of juice inhibited LDL oxidation, and with increasing the juice concentration, LDL was oxidized faster. The higher concentrations of peel extract prevented LDL oxidation better than the lower ones, according to “Antioxidant effects of Citrus aurantifolia (Christm) juice and peel extract on LDL oxidation” by Boshtam M, Moshtaghian J, Naderi G, Asgary S, Nayeri H.(2).

3. Anti bacterial effects
In the observation if orange peel and pulp affected E. coli O157:H7 populations in vivo, found that opulations of inoculated E. coli O157:H7 were reduced by OP treatment throughout the gastrointestinal tract; however, this reduction reached significant levels in the rumen (P < 0.05) of sheep fed 10% OP diets. Cecal and rectal populations of E. coli O157:H7 were reduced (P < 0.05) by inclusion of both 5 and 10% OP diets, according to “Escherichia coli O157:H7 populations in ruminants can be reduced by orange peel product feeding” by Callaway TR, Carroll JA, Arthington JD, Edrington TS, Rossman ML, Carr MA, Krueger NA, Ricke SC, Crandall P, Nisbet DJ.(3).

4. Vascular diseases
In the examination of the effect of tangeretin on platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB-induced proliferation and migration of rat aortic smooth muscle cells (RASMCs), found that tangeretin could suppress PDGF-BB-induced proliferation and migration of RASMCs through the suppression of PI3K/AKT signaling pathway, and may be a potential candidate for preventing or treating vascular diseases, such as atherosclerosis and restenosis, according to “Tangeretin, a citrus flavonoid, inhibits PGDF-BB-induced proliferation and migration of aortic smooth muscle cells by blocking AKT activation” by Seo J, Lee HS, Ryoo S, Seo JH, Min BS, Lee JH.(4).

5. Antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and cytotoxic activities
In the isolation of the effects of an aqueous methanolic extract of fruit peel of Citrus pyriformis Hassk. (Rutaceae) resulted in seven compounds including one coumarin (citropten), two limonoids (limonin and deacetylnomilin), and four sterols (stigmasterol, ergosterol, sitosteryl-3-beta-D-glucoside, and sitosteryl-6′-O-acyl-3-beta-D-glucoside), found that The total methanolic extract of the peel and the petroleum ether, dichloromethane, and ethyl acetate fractions were screened for their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. The ethyl acetate fraction exhibited a significant scavenging activity for DPPH free radicals (IC50 = 132.3 microg/mL). The petroleum ether fraction inhibited 5-lipoxygenase with IC50 = 30.6 microg/mL indicating potential anti-inflammatory properties. Limonin has a potent cytotoxic effect against COS7 cells [IC50 = (35.0 +/- 6.1) microM] compared with acteoside as a positive control [IC50 = (144.5 +/- 10.96) microM], according to “Secondary metabolites of ponderosa lemon (Citrus pyriformis) and their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and cytotoxic activities” by Hamdan D, El-Readi MZ, Tahrani A, Herrmann F, Kaufmann D, Farrag N, El-Shazly A, Wink M.(5).

6. Chronic allergic dermatitis
In the examination of whether extract from immature natsumikan peel prevents development of chronic allergic dermatitis in mice, found that treatment of natsumikan significantly attenuated the increase in ear swelling and improved dermatitis scores. In addition, increases in serum d-ROM were attenuated by a treatment of natsumikan. Although the routine treatment with dexamethasone resulted in a clear and significant reduction in body weight, natsumikan treatment did not have such effects, according to “Extract from peel of Citrus natsudaidai alleviates experimental chronic allergic dermatitis in mice” by Nakayama N, Yamaura K, Shimada M, Ueno K.(6).

7. Breast cancer
In the evaluation of wheather Citrus flavonoids exert a broad spectrum of biological activity, including antiproliferative and proapoptotic effects in cancer cells, indicated that our results strongly imply that bioactive PMFs from orange peel exert proapoptotic activity in human breast cancer cells, which depends on their ability to induce an increase in intracellular Ca(2+ )and thus, activate Ca(2+)-dependent apoptotic proteases, according to “Apoptosis-inducing activity of hydroxylated polymethoxyflavones and polymethoxyflavones from orange peel in human breast cancer cells” by Sergeev IN, Ho CT, Li S, Colby J, Dushenkov S.(7).

8. Adjuvant arthritis (AA)
In the investigation of the effect of the total flavonoids of orange peel (TFO) against adjuvant arthritis (AA) and the underlying mechanism, found that the 75 mg x kg(-1) and 150 mg x kg(-1) TFO treatment obviously decreased the pad thickness and improve the pathological impairment of ankle joint of AA rats. In addition, abnormal elevation of TNF-alpha, IL-1beta and PGE2 in serum and COX-2 expression in synovium tissues of AA rats were markedly repressed by TFO treatment, according to “[Effect and mechanism of total flavonoids of orange peel on rat adjuvant arthritis].[Article in Chinese]” by Chen G, Yin Z, Zheng X.(8).

9. Etc.

Side effects
1. Do not use the herb for a prolonged period of time as it may weaken the body
2. Choose organic Chen pi and soak it in water for several hours and wash it thoroughly before use.

3. Do not use the herb in internal or external bleeding.
4. Etc.

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