Tuesday, June 21, 2016

Traditional Chinese Medicine Herbal Therapy - Popular Chinese Herbs - Chuan Lian or Huang Lian (Rhizoma Coptidis)

Kyle J. Norton(Scholar and Master of Nutrients, all right reserved)
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
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Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.

Chuan Lian or Huang Lian (Rhizoma Coptidis)

Chuan Lian or Huang Lian is also known as Coptis Rhizome, the bitter and cold herb has been used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat indigestion, diabetes, inflammation of intestine, diarrhea caused by bacterial infection, high fever, restlessness, insomnia and also used in externally to treat inflammation of the cornea, middle ear infection, external ear infection and eczema, etc. as it clears heat, dries Dampness, disperses Fire, expels toxins, etc. by enhancing the functions of heart, large intestine, liver, and stomach channels

1. Berberine C20H17NO3
2. Colchicine C21H25NO5
3. Coptisine C19H15NO5
4. Worenine C21H15NO4
5. Palmatine C22HC24 H24O5 N.OHO5NOH
6. Jatrorrhizine
7. Magnoflorine
8. Etc.

Health Benefits
1. Anti-Alzheimer and antioxidant activities
In the investigation of the anti-Alzheimer and antioxidant effects of six protoberberine alkaloids (berberine, palmatine, jateorrhizine, epiberberine, coptisine, and groenlandicine) and one aporphine alkaloid (magnoflorine) from Coptidis Rhizoma, found that Coptidis Rhizoma alkaloids have a strong potential of inhibition and prevention of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) mainly through both ChEs and beta-amyloids pathways, and additionally through antioxidant capacities. In particular, groenlandicine may be a promising anti-AD agent due to its potent inhibitory activity of both ChEs and beta-amyloids formation, as well as marked ONOO(-) scavenging and good ROS inhibitory capacities, according to ‘Anti-Alzheimer and antioxidant activities of Coptidis Rhizoma alkaloids” by Jung HA, Min BS, Yokozawa T, Lee JH, Kim YS, Choi JS.(1).

 2. Antineoplastic effect
In the review of the pharmacological studies of huanglian and berberine, with an emphasis on their antineoplastic effects and the promise as novel antineoplastic agents, found that Berberine is an essential anticancer compound in huanglian. In some studies, the use of huanglian was shown to be more effective and beneficial than the use of berberine alone. The presence of other protoberberine-type alkaloids in huanglian might give synergistic effects for the anticancer effects. Berberine also demonstrates effects of antiangiogenesis, anti-invasion and anti-metastasis in some cancer cell lines, however, more investigations are required to unravel the underlying mechanisms involved, according to “Berberine and Coptidis rhizoma as novel antineoplastic agents: a review of traditional use and biomedical investigations” by Tang J, Feng Y, Tsao S, Wang N, Curtain R, Wang Y.(2).

3. Hepatoprotective effect
In the demonstration of Coptidis rhizoma aqueous extract (CRAE) antioxidant effects against CCl(4)-induced acute liver, found that CRAE showed protective effect against CCl(4)-induced chronic liver damage in rats and its potential as an agent in the treatment of chronic liver diseases by protecting hepatocyte from injury, according to “Hepatoprotective effect and its possible mechanism of Coptidis rhizoma aqueous extract on carbon tetrachloride-induced chronic liver hepatotoxicity in rats” byFeng Y, Wang N, Ye X, Li H, Feng Y, Cheung F, Nagamatsu T.(3).

4. Type II diabetes
In the evaluation of the effects of different compatibility proportion of Jiaotai pills on treating type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in rats by injecting streptozotocin from tail vein and feeding with high fat and high caloric diet. Diabetic rats were randomly divided into model group, Jiaotai pill 1 group (Coptidis Rhizoma-cinnamon 2: 1), Jiaotai pill 2 group (Coptidis Rhizoma-cinnamon 4: 1), Jiaotai pill 3 group (Coptidis Rhizoma-cinnamon 10: 1) and metformin group, found that different compatibility proportion of Jiaotai pills are effective on treating type 2 diabetes mellitus in rats. The effect of Jiaotai pill 1 group is better than that of other therapy groups, according to “[Effects of different compatibility proportion of jiaotai pills on treating type 2 diabetes mellitus in rats].[Article in Chinese]” by Wang J, Lu F, Dong H, Gong Y, Xu L, Zou X, Chen G.(4).

5. Neuroprotective effect
In the To examination of whether berberine has survival promoting effect on damaged neuronal cells, found that berberine promotes activity dependent cell survival mediated by NMDA receptor because berberine is known to activate neurons by blocking K(+) current or lowering the threshold of the action potential. Taken together, berberine has neuroprotective effect on damaged neurons and neurodegenerating brains of neonatal animal model induced by MK-801 administration, according to “Effect of Berberine on Cell Survival in the Developing Rat Brain Damaged by MK-801″ by Lee T, Heo H, Kim Kwon Y.(5).

6. Hepatitis C virus
In the investigation of San-Huang-Xie-Xin-Tang (SHXT), a transitional Chinese herbal formula, composed of Rhei rhizoma, Scutellaria radix and Coptidis rhizome, and possesses anti-inflammatory effect, found that SHXT-frC treatment also caused a concentration-dependent decrease in the induction of COX-2 and NF-κB expression caused by either HCV replication or HCV NS5A protein. Collectively, SHXT-frC could be an adjuvant treatment for patients with HCV-induced liver diseases, according to “San-Huang-Xie-Xin-Tang extract suppresses hepatitis C virus replication and virus-induced cyclooxygenase-2 expression”by Lee JC, Tseng CK, Wu SF, Chang FR, Chiu CC, Wu YC.(6).

7. Rheumatoid arthritis
In the evaluation of Berberine, the major constituent of Coptidis Rhizoma, widely used as an antitumor and anti-inflammation agent for its effect on the progression of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), found that berberine exerts antiproliferative effects against RAFLSs, likely through deregulation of numerous cell cycle and apoptosis regulators, thus having potential therapeutic implications in the treatment of RA, according to “Effects of berberine on human rheumatoid arthritis fibroblast-like synoviocytes”byWang XH, Jiang SM, Sun QW.(7).

8. Irritable bowel syndrome
In the examination of the effect of CR extract on neonatal maternal separation (NMS)-induced visceral hyperalgesia in rats and its underlying action mechanisms, found that electromyogram (EMG) signals in response to colonic distension were measured with the NMS rats showing lower pain threshold and increased EMG activity than those of the unseparated (N) rats. CR dose-dependently increased pain threshold response and attenuated EMG activity in the NMS rats. An enzymatic immunoassay study showed that CR treatment significantly reduced the serotonin (5HT) concentration from the distal colon of NMS rats compared to the Veh (control) group, according to “Analgesic effect of Coptis chinensis rhizomes (Coptidis Rhizoma) extract on rat model of irritable bowel syndrome” by Tjong Y, Ip S, Lao L, Fong HH, Sung JJ, Berman B, Che C.(8).

9. Oropharyngeal candidiasis
In the searching for alternativecandidiasis treatment among individuals infected with HIV, as 90% of patients develop oral and/or oropharyngeal candidiasis in various stages of AIDS.
found that traditional Chinese medicinal herbs provide abundant choices for the treatment of refractory candidiasis commonly seen in HIV/AIDS patients. However, there remains a need for further screening of effective extracts and for study of the antifungal mechanisms involved. Importantly, ahead of clinical application, the safety of these compounds must be firmly established, according to “Effect of traditional Chinese medicinal herbs on Candida spp. from patients with HIV/AIDS” by Liu X, Han Y, Peng K, Liu Y, Li J, Liu H.(9).

10. Anti-inflammatory effects
In the study of Huang-Lian-Jie-Du decoction (HLJDD) (Oren-gedoku-to in Japanese) as a famous traditional Chinese recipe is composed of Rhizoma coptidis, Radix scutellariae, Cortex phellodendri and Fructus gardeniae, used to treat inflammation for nearly two thousand years, found that with the help of principal component analysis (PCA) technique, the data obtained revealed that the two fractions and the major group of compounds in HLJDD (iridoids, flavonoids and alkaloids) complement each other with particular emphasis to synergistically exert anti-inflammatory effects, according to “Anti-inflammatory effects of Huang-Lian-Jie-Du decoction, its two fractions and four typical compounds” by Lu J, Wang JS, Kong LY.(10).

11. Coptidis rhizoma and Diabetes
In the study of berberine in the control of blood glucose and lipid and metabolism disorders, indicated that berberine, an isoquinoline alkaloid isolated from some Chinese medicinal herbs such as Coptidis rhizoma found that the mechanisms involve many aspects of the diabetes, including regulating the blood cholesterol and triglyceride, lowering blood glucose, ameliorating the insulin resistant state and influencing the function of the pancreatic beta cell, according to “[Advances of the mechanism study on berberine in the control of blood glucose and lipid as well as metabolism disorders].[Article in Chinese]” by Shen N, Li CN, Huan Y, Shen ZF.(11).

12. Etc.

Side Effects
1. Large dosage can be toxic.
2. The herb can cause allergic effect such as rash, dizziness, tinnitus, nausea, vomiting, anxiety, etc.
3. Not to use in patients with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency.
4. Etc.

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(1) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19652386
(2) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19686830
(3) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21963555
(4) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22097345
(5) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22110353
(6) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21692943
(7) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21676922
(8) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21511022
(9) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21441482
(10) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21296144
(11) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20939176

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