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Saturday, June 18, 2016

Phytochemicals in Foods - The Effects of Phytoene

Kyle J. Norton(Scholar and Master of Nutrients, all right reserved)
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Disilgold.com Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.


                                   Phytoene 


Phytoene
is a phytochemincal in the class of Carotenes, belonging to the group of Carotenoids (tetraterpenoids), found abundantly in sweet potato, orange, etc.

Health Benefits
1. Prostate cancerIn the examination within the context of a whole food with Male Copenhagen rats fed diets containing 10% standard tomato powder, tomato enriched with lycopene or total carotenoids, standard broccoli floret, broccoli sprouts, or broccoli enriched with indole glucosinolates or selenium for 7 days, found that standard broccoli and lycopene-enriched tomato diets down-regulated prostatic glutathione S-transferase P1 mRNA expression. Different tomato diets resulted in altered hepatic accumulation of lycopene, phytofluene, and phytoene. These results demonstrate that the bioactive content of vegetables affects both tissue content of bioactives and activity of detoxification enzymes. Enhancing bioactive content of tomatoes and broccoli may enhance efficacy in the prevention of prostate cancer, according to "Feeding tomato and broccoli powders enriched with bioactives improves bioactivity markers in rats" by Liu AG, Volker SE, Jeffery EH, Erdman JW Jr.(1)

2. Macular degeneration
In the investigation of the protective effect has been attributed to carotenoids, which are one of the major classes of phytochemicals ( lycopene, followed by phytoene, phytofluene, zeta-carotene, gamma-carotene, beta-carotene, neurosporene, and lutein) in tomato, found that the possible role of lycopene and other dietary carotenoids in the prevention of age-related macular degeneration and other eye diseases is discussed, according to "Chemistry, distribution, and metabolism of tomato carotenoids and their impact on human health" by Khachik F, Carvalho L, Bernstein PS, Muir GJ, Zhao DY, Katz NB.(2)

3. Antioxidants
In the verification of verify whether the daily intake of a beverage prototype called Lyc-o-Mato((R)) containing a natural tomato extract (Lyc-o-Mato((R)) oleoresin 6 %) was able to modify plasma and lymphocyte carotenoid concentrations, particularly those of lycopene, phytoene, phytofluene and beta-carotene, and to evaluate whether this intake was sufficient to improve protection against DNA damage in lymphocytes, found that the intake of the tomato drink significantly reduced (by about 42 %) DNA damage (P<0.0001) in lymphocytes subjected to oxidative stress. In conclusion, the present study supports the fact that a low intake of carotenoids from tomato products improves cell antioxidant protection, according to "Daily intake of a formulated tomato drink affects carotenoid plasma and lymphocyte concentrations and improves cellular antioxidant protection" by Porrini M, Riso P, Brusamolino A, Berti C, Guarnieri S, Visioli F.(3)

4. Low density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation
In the investigation of the effect of carotenoids, isolated from the alga Dunaliella bardawil, in a biological system and used the in vitro low density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation method,
found that similar to beta-carotene and alpha-tocopherol, a carotenoid algal preparation containing phytoene and phytofluene inhibited LDL oxidation. These findings and the presence of phytoene and phytofluene in human tissues suggest that they can be part of the defense system against oxidative stress, according to "A carotenoid algal preparation containing phytoene and phytoflueneinhibited LDL oxidation in vitro" by Shaish A, Harari A, Kamari Y, Soudant E, Harats D, Ben-Amotz A.(4)

5. Inflammation, immunomodulation, and oxidative stress
In the investigation of 26 healthy young volunteers. In a placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover study, Lyc-o-Mato (5.7 mg of lycopene, 3.7 mg of phytoene, 2.7 mg of phytofluene, 1 mg of beta-carotene, and 1.8 mg of alpha-tocopherol) or a placebo drink (same taste and flavor, but devoid of active compounds) were given for 26 days, separated by a wash-out period, found that TNF-alpha production by whole blood was 34.4% lower after 26 days of drink consumption, whereas the other parameters were not significantly modified by the treatment. In turn, modest effects of the regular intake of a tomato drink, providing small amounts of carotenoids, were found on the production of inflammatory mediators, such as TNF-alpha, in young healthy volunteers. Future intervention trials in subjects with low carotenoid status and/or compromised immune system will resolve the issue of whether carotenoids modulate immune parameters in humans, according to " Effect of a tomato-based drink on markers of inflammation, immunomodulation, and oxidative stress" by Riso P, Visioli F, Grande S, Guarnieri S, Gardana C, Simonetti P, Porrini M.(5)

6. Anti cancers
In the examination of whether carotenoids inhibit signaling of steroidal estrogen and phytoestrogen which could explain their cancer preventive activity, found that beach of the tested carotenoids (lycopene, phytoene, phytofluene, and beta-carotene) inhibited cancer cell proliferation induced by either E(2) or genistein. The inhibition of cell growth by lycopene was accompanied by slow down of cell-cycle progression from G1 to S phase. Moreover, the carotenoids inhibited estrogen-induced transactivation of ERE that was mediated by both estrogen receptors (ERs) ERalpha and ERbeta. The possibility that this inhibition results from competition of carotenoid-activated transcription systems on a limited pool of shared coactivators with the ERE transcription system was tested. Although cotransfection of breast and endometrial cancer cells with four different coactivators (SRC-1, SRC-2, SRC-3, and DRIP) strongly stimulated ERE reporter gene activity, it did not oppose the inhibitory effect of carotenoids, according to "Lycopene and other carotenoids inhibit estrogenic activity of 17beta-estradiol and genistein in cancer cells" by Hirsch K, Atzmon A, Danilenko M, Levy J, Sharoni Y.(6)

7. Anti-inflammatory effects
In the investigation of the effects of CoQ10 and colorless carotenoids (phytoene and phytofluene, or to combinations of these antioxidants) on the production of inflammatory mediators in human dermal fibroblasts treated with UV radiation (UVR) and the possible synergistic effects of these two antioxidants, found that CoQ10 is able to suppress the UVR- or IL-1-induced inflammatory response in dermal fibroblasts. Furthermore, this compound can block the UVR induction of the matrix-eroding enzyme, MMP-1. Finally, the combination of carotenoids plus CoQ10 results in enhanced suppression of inflammation. The results suggest that the combination of carotenoids and CoQ10 in topical skin care products may provide enhanced protection from inflammation and premature aging caused by sun exposure, according to "Anti-inflammatory effects of CoQ10 and colorless carotenoids" by Fuller B, Smith D, Howerton A, Kern D.(7)

8. Etc.
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Sources
(1) ) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19650632
(2) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12424324
(3) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15705230
(4) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17173569
(5) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16569044
(6) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16569044
(7) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17173569

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