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Saturday, June 18, 2016

Obesity and Obesity's complication - The association of Obesity on Prostate Cancer

Kyle J. Norton(Scholar, Master of Nutrients), all right reserved.
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Disilgold.com Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
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Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.

Obesity is a medical condition of excess body fat accumulated overtime, while overweight is a condition of excess body weight relatively to the height. According to the Body Mass Index(BMI), a BMI between 25 to 29.9 is considered over weight, while a BMI of over 30 is an indication of obesity. According to the statistic, 68% of American population are either overweight or obese.

You can calculate your BMI index BMI= weight (kg)/ height (m2)

Prostate cancer is defined as a condition in which the cells of prostate has become cancerous, causing abnormal cell growth which spread to the distant parts of the body. Most prostate cancers are slow growing and enlarged prostate and prostate cancer may be detected during the Physical (rectum) exams. For more information of prostate cancer, visithttp://thecancerhealingguide.blogspot.com/2011/06/most-common-types-of-cancer-prostate.html

C. Prostate enlargement is defined as condition of increasing of the levels of the by-product prolactin of testosterone of men, that stimulates the production of the enzyme 5-alpha reductase that causes the conversion of testosterone to gihydro-testosterones DHT, triggering prostate enlargement and other problems. Therefore in order to prevent the symptoms of enlarged prostate is to naturally impend the conversion of testosterone to DHT.

The association of Obesity on Prostate Cancer
1. According to the abstract of the study of "Abdominal obesity as risk factor for prostate cancer diagnosis and high grade disease: A prospective multicenter Italian cohort study" by De Nunzio C, Albisinni S, Freedland SJ, Miano L, Cindolo L, Finazzi Agrò E, Autorino R, De Sio M, Schips L, Tubaro A. Source from Urol Oncol. 2011 Sep 16. [Epub ahead of print]), posted in PubMed, researchers indicated that Obesity defined by BMI and WC seems to be associated with CaP and, more specifically, with high-grade disease at the time of biopsy. The relationship between obesity and CaP is complex and remains to be further addressed.

2. In a study of "Metabolic syndrome is associated with high grade gleason score when prostate cancer is diagnosed on biopsy" by De Nunzio C, Freedland SJ, Miano R, Trucchi A, Cantiani A, Carluccini A, Tubaro A. (Source from Department of Urology, Ospedale Sant'Andrea, University "La Sapienza," Roma, Italy. cosimodenunzio@virgilio.it. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.), posted in PubMed, the result indicated that one hundred ninety five patients were enrolled with a median age and PSA of 69 years and 5.6 ng/ml respectively. Median BMI was 27.6 kg/m(2) with 64 patients (33%) being classified as obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2) ). Eighty-six patients (44%) had MS. Eighty-three patients (43%) had cancer on biopsy; 37 (45%) with MS and 46 (55%) without (P = 0.48). PSA was independently associated with higher risk of cancer (OR 1.12/1 U PSA, P = 0.01). Out of 83 patients with prostate cancer, 42 (51%) had Gleason score 6 (12 (28.5%) presented a MS) and 41 (49%) a Gleason score ≥7 (25 (61%) presented a MS). The presence of MS was not associated with an increased risk prostate cancer (OR: 0.97, P = 0.94) but with an increased risk of Gleason ≥7 (OR: 3.82; P = 0.013).

3. In an abstract of athe study of "Body mass index in early and middle-late adulthood and risk of localised, advanced and fatal prostate cancer: a population-based prospective study" byDiscacciati A, Orsini N, Andersson SO, Andrén O, Johansson JE, Wolk A. (Source from Division of Nutritional Epidemiology, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Box 210, 171 77, Stockholm, Sweden. Br J Cancer. 2011 Aug 16. doi: 10.1038/bjc.2011.319. [Epub ahead of print]), posted in PubMed, researchers found that a dual association between BMI and fatal PCa - a decreased risk among men who were obese during early adulthood and an increased risk among those who were obese during middle-late adulthood.British Journal of Cancer advance online publication, 16 August 2011; doi:10.1038/bjc.2011.319 www.bjcancer.com.

4. According to the abstarct of study of "Prospective study of adiposity and weight change in relation to prostate cancer incidence and mortality" by Wright ME, Chang SC, Schatzkin A, Albanes D, Kipnis V, Mouw T, Hurwitz P, Hollenbeck A, Leitzmann MF. (Source from Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Bethesda, Maryland, USA. mewright@uic.edu, Cancer. 2007 Feb 15;109(4):675-84.), posted in PubMed, researchers concluded that Although adiposity was not related positively to prostate cancer incidence, higher BMI and adult weight gain increased the risk of dying from prostate cancer.

5. According to a study of "Is obesity a risk factor for prostate cancer, and does it even matter? A hypothesis and different perspective" by Moyad MA. (Source from Department of Urology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-0330, USA. moyad@umich.edu, Urology. 2002 Apr;59(4 Suppl 1):41-50), posted in PUbMed, researchers found that The 2 largest prospective studies on BMI and overall mortality have also demonstrated the substantial negative impact of excess weight on society. Prostate cancer risk and obesity need further research to establish if a true association exists, but at this time, does it really matter? Overall, the profound adverse effect of being obese on general health is dramatic, and this is what clinicians and patients need to remember.

6. In abstract of study of "Inverse correlation between body mass index and clinical outcomes in men with advanced castration-recurrent prostate cancer" by Halabi S, Ou SS, Vogelzang NJ, Small EJ. (Source from Department of Biostatistics and Bioinformatics, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705, USA. susan.halabi@duke.edu, Cancer. 2007 Oct 1;110(7):1478-84.), posted in PubMed, researchers indicated that Approximately 24% of the patients had a normal BMI, 43% were overweight, and 33% were mildly to severely obese. On multivariable analysis, BMI was found to be a statistically significant predictor of overall survival and prostate cancer-specific mortality. Compared with men with normal BMIs, the hazard ratios for death for overweight men and mildly to severely obese men were 0.80 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.68-0.93; P = .001) and 0.80 (95% CI, 0.68-0.94; P = .010), respectively.

7. Etc.

Treatments of Obesity and Prostate Cancer
1. According to the study of "Obesity and sex steroids during gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist treatment for prostate cancer" by Smith MR. (Source from Division of Hematology and Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA. smith.matthew@mgh.harvard.edu, Clin Cancer Res. 2007 Jan 1;13(1):241-5.), posted in PubMed, researcher concluded in abstract that Despite lower pretreatment serum testosterone levels, obese men have higher total and free testosterone levels during leuprolide treatment than men with normal BMI. These differences may contribute to the association between obesity and increased prostate cancer mortality.

2. In a study of " Influence of obesity on the incidence and treatment of genitourinary malignancies" by Stewart SB, Freedland SJ. (Source, from Division of Urologic Surgery and Duke Prostate Center, Department of Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA, Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved), posted in PubMed, researchers stated that Obesity appears to promote an increased risk of aggressive prostate cancer (CaP). This may be related, in part, to a detection bias found in obese men. Worse surgical and radiation treatment outcomes in the obese appear to be related not only to technical challenges, but also inherent tumor biology differences and more aggressive disease presentations.

3. According to the abstract of the study of "The impact of obesity on the incidence and treatment of gynecologic cancers: a review" by Modesitt SC, van Nagell JR Jr. (Source from Gynecologic Oncology Division, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Kentucky Chandler Medical Center, Lucille Markey Cancer Center, 800 Rose Street, Lexington, KY 40536-0298, USA. smode2@uky.edu, Obstet Gynecol Surv. 2005 Oct;60(10):683-92), posted in Pubmed, researchers indicated that there is no current consensus regarding appropriate chemotherapy dosing in the obese patient. Obesity is a serious health problem with significant effects on the incidence and treatment of the gynecologic malignancies. TARGET AUDIENCE: Obstetricians & Gynecologists, Family Physicians. LEARNING OBJECTIVES: After completion of this article, the reader should be able to summarize the clear evidence that obesity is a risk factor for many cancers, including gynecologic malignancies; describe the role of unopposed estrogen in gynecologic cancers; and explain that obese women overall have a poorer survival rate when afflicted with cancer.

4. Etc.

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