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Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome
Unfortunately, according to studies, women with PCOs after the reproductive age, are associated to continuously increase risk of type II diabetes, with no increasingaltered glucose tolerance(20), CVD and hypertension(21).
The prevention and management In Herbal Medicine
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is unpreventable in Western medicine. Early diagnosis and treatment may reduce risk of its complications, including infertility, metabolic syndrome, obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, stroke, etc.
Reduce fat intake less than 30% of total calories with a low proportion of saturated fat and high in fiber from predominantly low-glycaemic-index-carbohydrate foods for patients with PCOs(827a). Calorie intake should be distributed between several meals per day with restricted intake of snacks and drinks(828).
The stress management herbs
Stress in a natural reaction of human fight or fight response induced by pressure due to such as an environmental condition or a stimulus. Long term stress can cause deleterious and cumulative effects on human body(1104), including emotional or cognitive problems, such as an increased risk of attentional deficit/hyperactivity, anxiety, and language delay(1103), especially for people with chronic illness, including women with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOs)(1105).
Ginseng (Panax spp.)
(See Herbal treatment for PCOs for more information)
[ Ginseng Asia is also known as Panax ginseng. Since it has been grown in the cold places in the Asian, Asian ginseng is considered as yang promoting, according to traditional Chinese medicine.
Korean red ginseng extract (KRGE) in the experiment in PCOs induced rodent, improved PCO-related ovarian dysfunction(830). In rat model, induced by injection of estradiol valerate (EV), the extract also regulated sympathetic nerve activity by significantly lower expression of NGF protein (involved in the growth of peripheral nerve cells) and NGF mRNA(the form of RNA that carries information from DNA)involved in the abnormal process caused by steroid-induced PCO(830). Also, in the experiment of Ginseng total saponins (GTS) involved polycystic ovaries induced by a single intramuscular injection of 4 mg estradiol valerate (EV) in rats, GTS decreased the expression of NGF in ovary tissue(831)].
(See herbal medicine for weight loss)
[Ginseng is a slow-growing perennial plants with fleshy roots, the genus Panax, belonging to the family Araliaceae. Depending to the climate where it grows, ginseng can be classified mainly into Panax ginseng Asian ginseng (root), Red ginseng, wild ginseng, American ginseng (root)(791).
In 10 obese middle-aged Korean women who took Panax ginseng extracts for 8 wk, showed effectively in influence on gut microbiota in promoting weigh loss but depending to the composition of gut microbiota prior to ginseng intake(792). In mice fed on a high-fat diet, ginseng saponin and ginsenosides not only exerted anti-obesity effects via the modulation of physiological lipid metabolism in vivo or intracellular signalling in cell culture systems, but also promoted anti-obesity effects, through abnormal physiology via HFD. Leptin, insulin, and adiponectin, which carry out critical functions in energy and lipid metabolism(793)].
3. Chikusetsuaponin IV
6. Alpha pansinsene
7. Beta pansinsene
8. Beta farnesene
10. Beta elemene
11. Gama elemene
12. Alpha neodovene
13. Beta neodovene
14. Alpha humulene
15. Beta humulene
17. Beta gurjunene
18. Alpha gurjunene
19. Citric acid
20. Isocitric acid
21. Fumaric acid
22. Oleic acid,
23. Linoleic acid
24. Beta sitosterol
27. Sitosteryl-o-(6-O-fatty acyl)-glucpyranoside
Panax ginseng, native to Korea, one of most frequent and wonderful used over thousand years in herbal medicine for improvement of male over all health due to aging diminished steroidal hormone in Asian(1138) has found to processsignificant anti-stress (1137)(1143)(1144), such as adapt to stress(1138) through reverted cholesterol (CL), creatine kinase (CK) activity(1137) anti oxidative stress(1139)(1142)(1146) through its elevation in catalase (CAT), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities as scavenger enzymes(1139). antioxidant effects(1140).
In immobilized mice, orally administered ginsenoside Rb1 found in Panax ginseng exhibited its anti stress effects through regulation of serum levels of corticosterone(1145) and interleukin (IL)-6(1141).
In chronic unpredictable mild stress rat model, ginsenosides also ameliorated stress symptoms of depression(1147)(1149)(1150) through significantly suppressed behavioral and biochemical changes(1147) and cognitive impairment, neuroinflammation, and biochemical alterations through improved corticosterone levels; and attenuated oxidative-nitrergic stress(1148).
In stress induced metabolic syndrome(1151), ginseng' saponins (ginsenosides) are proven effectively for its properties of anti-hyperglycemia, insulin sensitization, islet protection, anti-obesity and anti-oxidation in many model systems, according to Louisana State University System(1152).
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(1) Adiposity and metabolic dysfunction in polycystic ovary syndrome by Sam S.(PubMed)
(2) A "kiss" before conception: triggering ovulation with kisspeptin-54 may improve IVF by Young SL.(PubMed)
(3.) Androgen hyperfunction and excessive heterosexual hair growth in women, with special attention to the polycystic ovarian syndrome by Lunde O1.(PubMed)
(4) Expression of anti-Müllerian hormone in letrozole rat model of polycystic ovary syndrome by Du DF1, Li XL, Fang F, Du MR.(PubMed)
(5) [Serum levels of anti-muller hormone in women with polycystic ovary syndromeand healthy women of reproductive age].[Article in Bulgarian] by Parahuleva N, Pehlivanov B, Orbecova M, Deneva T, Uchikova E.(PubMed)
(6) [Current opinions on the etiology and pathophysiology of hirsutism].[Article in Polish] by Krysiak R1, Kedzia A, Okopień B.(PubMed)
(7) The clinical evaluation of hirsutism by Somani N1, Harrison S, Bergfeld WF.(PubMed)
(8) Polycystic ovary syndrome and insulin: our understanding in the past, present and future by Mayer SB1, Evans WS, Nestler JE.(PubMed)
(9) Association of mean platelet volume with androgens and insulin resistance in nonobese patients with polycystic ovary syndrome by Dogan BA1, Arduc A2, Tuna MM1, Karakılıc E1, Dagdelen I1, Tutuncu Y1, Berker D1, Guler S1.(PubMed)
(10) Approach to the patient: contraception in women with polycystic ovary syndrome by Yildiz BO1.(PubMed)
(11) Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS): a significant contributor to the overall burden of type 2 diabetes in women by Talbott EO1, Zborowski JV, Rager JR, Kip KE, Xu X, Orchard TJ.(PubMed)
(12) Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in Slovak women with polycystic ovary syndrome and its relation to metabolic and reproductive abnormalities by Figurová J1, Dravecká I, Javorský M, Petríková J, Lazúrová I.(PubMed)
(13) Role of Insulin Sensitizers on Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome: A Meta-Analysis by Thethi TK1, Katalenich B2, Nagireddy P3, Chabbra P4, Kuhadiya N5, Fonseca V1.(PubMed)
(14) Acne in hirsute women by Lumezi BG1, Pupovci HL1, Berisha VL1, Goçi AU2, Gerqari A3.(PubMed)
(15) Obesity and polycystic ovary syndrome by Naderpoor N1, Shorakae S, Joham A, Boyle J, De Courten B, Teede HJ.(PubMed)
(16) Polycystic ovary syndrome: a complex condition with psychological, reproductive and metabolic manifestations that impacts on health across the lifespan by Teede H1, Deeks A, Moran L.(PubMed)
(17) Metabolic Evidence of Diminished Lipid Oxidation in Women With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome. by Whigham LD1, Butz DE2, Dashti H3, Tonelli M3, Johnson LK1, Cook ME2, Porter WP4, Eghbalnia HR5, Markley JL6, Lindheim SR7, Schoeller DA8, Abbott DH9, Assadi-Porter FM10.(PubMed)
(18) Risk of endometrial, ovarian and breast cancer in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis by Barry JA1, Azizia MM1, Hardiman PJ2.(PubMed)
(19) Risk of cancer among women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a Danish cohort study by Gottschau M1, Kjaer SK2, Jensen A1, Munk C1, Mellemkjaer L3.(PubMed)
(20) Polycystic ovary syndrome: metabolic consequences and long-term management by Carmina E1.(PubMed)
(21) Arterial stiffness is increased in asymptomatic nondiabetic postmenopausal women with a polycystic ovary syndrome phenotype by Armeni E1, Stamatelopoulos K, Rizos D, Georgiopoulos G, Kazani M, Kazani A, Kolyviras A, Stellos K, Panoulis K, Alexandrou A, Creatsa M, Papamichael C, Lambrinoudaki I.(PubMed)
(827a) Diet and nutrition in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS): pointers for nutritional management by Farshchi H, Rane A, Love A, Kennedy RL(PubMed)
(828) The optimal diet for women with polycystic ovary syndrome? by Marsh K, Brand-Miller J.(PubMed) (1106) Simultaneous Estimation of Withaferin A and Z-Guggulsterone in Marketed Formulation by RP-HPLC by Agrawal P1, Vegda R2, Laddha K2.(PubMed)
(1103) Antenatal maternal stress and long-term effects on child neurodevelopment: how and why? by Talge NM1, Neal C, Glover V; Early Stress, Translational Research and Prevention Science Network: Fetal and Neonatal Experience on Child and Adolescent Mental Health.(PubMed)
(1104) Immediate and long-term effects of meditation on acute stress reactivity, cognitive functions, and intelligence by Singh Y1, Sharma R, Talwar A.(PubMed)
(1105) The potential implications of a PCOS diagnosis on a woman's long-termhealth using data linkage by Hart R1, Doherty DA.(PubMed)
(1137) Anti-stress effects of Ginkgo biloba and Panax ginseng: a comparative study by Rai D1, Bhatia G, Sen T, Palit G.(PubMed)
(1138) Ginseng, Korean(The free dictionary by Farlet)
(1139) Effects of Panax ginseng extract on exercise-induced oxidative stress by Kim SH1, Park KS, Chang MJ, Sung JH.(PubMed)
(1140) Saponins from Panax japonicus attenuate D-galactose-induced cognitive impairment through its anti-oxidative and anti-apoptotic effects in rats by Wang T1, Di G, Yang L, Dun Y, Sun Z, Wan J, Peng B, Liu C, Xiong G, Zhang C, Yuan D. (PubMed)
(1141) Anti-stress effects of 20(S)-protopanaxadiol and 20(S)-protopanaxatriol in immobilized mice by Oh HA1, Kim DE, Choi HJ, Kim NJ, Kim DH.(PubMed)
(1142) Protective effect of panax notoginseng saponins on acute ethanol-induced liver injury is associated with ameliorating hepatic lipid accumulation and reducing ethanol-mediated oxidative stress by Ding RB1, Tian K, Cao YW, Bao JL, Wang M, He C, Hu Y, Su H, Wan JB.(PubMed)
(1143) [The anti-stress effect of saponins extracted from panax ginseng fruit and the hypophyseal-adrenal system (author's transl)].[Article in Chinese] by Zhang SC, Jiang XL.(PubMed)
(1144) Ginseng and the hypothalamic-pituitary control of stress by Fulder SJ.(PubMed)
(1145) Stimulation of pituitary-adrenocortical system by ginseng saponin by Hiai S, Yokoyama H, Oura H, Yano S.(PubMed)
(1146) [Study on the mechanism of action of total saponins of Panax notoginseng in ameliorating oxidative stress and insulin resistance in rats fed with high fat diet].[Article in Chinese] by Zhang SS1, Wu ZY2, Chen JM3, Guo QK2, Li L2, Wang ZF2, Gao Y4, Ma ZC4.(PubMed)
(1147) [Effects of ginsenosides on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function and brain-derived neurotrophic factor in rats exposed to chronic unpredictable mildstress].[Article in Chinese] by Liu L1, Luo Y, Zhang R, Guo J.(PubMed)
(1148) Modulation of nitrergic signalling pathway by American ginseng attenuateschronic unpredictable stress-induced cognitive impairment, neuroinflammation, and biochemical alterations by Rinwa P1, Kumar A.(PubMed)
(1149) Ginsenoside Rb3 exerts antidepressant-like effects in several animal models by Cui J1, Jiang L, Xiang H.(PubMed)
(1150) Antidepressant effects of ginseng total saponins in the forced swimming test and chronic mild stress models of depression by Dang H1, Chen Y, Liu X, Wang Q, Wang L, Jia W, Wang Y.(PubMed)
(1151) Role of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Metabolic Disease and Other Disorders by Lale Ozcan and Ira Tabas(PubMed)
(1152) Traditional chinese medicine in treatment of metabolic syndrome by Yin J1, Zhang H, Ye J.(PubMed)