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Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome
Unfortunately, according to studies, women with PCOs after the reproductive age, are associated to continuously increase risk of type II diabetes, with no increasingaltered glucose tolerance(20), CVD and hypertension(21).
The prevention and management In Herbal Medicine
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is unpreventable in Western medicine. Early diagnosis and treatment may reduce risk of its complications, including infertility, metabolic syndrome, obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, stroke, etc.
Reduce fat intake less than 30% of total calories with a low proportion of saturated fat and high in fiber from predominantly low-glycaemic-index-carbohydrate foods for patients with PCOs(827a). Calorie intake should be distributed between several meals per day with restricted intake of snacks and drinks(828).
The Insulin resistance improvement and/or anti metabolic syndrome herbs: Licorice
[Gan Cao is also known as Licorice root. The sweet and neutral herb has been used in TCM as anti allergy(856), anti inflammation(855), anti ulcer(857), anti convulsion(858), oxidative stress(858) and to treat stomach weakness, tired and lack of strength, palpitation and short of breath, cough with abundance of phlegm, stomach and solar plexus pain(859), etc., as it tonifies the Spleen, benefits the Qi, moistens the Lungs, calms cough, deaf or acute pain, by enhancing all 12 channels(859). Licorice, in a review of 33 studies of herbal medicine for the management of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), showed a stronge evidences in improved metabolic hormone profile and improved fertility outcomes and regulation of ovulation and inhibition of hyperandrogenism in PCOS(860). In model rats experiment, Ganshao Paste (CGP), also decreased serum levels of LH, T, and FSH and increased of serum estradiol (E2), and progesterone (P)(861)(860)(865). According to University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences Vienna, licorice may have a potential effect on metabolic syndrome(862) in women with PCOs.
2. Blow flow
Licorice improves the blood flow in the body by exerting its anti thrombosis(983) and inhibiting the levels of bad cholesterol(984)(985) and triglyceride levels(985) and increasing HDL-cholesterol content(984) in reduced risk of cardiovascular disease(985) and blood stagnation(897) in the abdominal region induced induced infertility(986).
Glycyrrhizin, one of main ingredient from licorice, exhibited anti inflammatory effect pharmacologically in treatment of inflammatory diseases(988)(989)(990), lowered high serum testosterone levels in oligomenorrheic or amenorrheic women, and induced conception in some women(991). As antioxidant, the phytochemical also inhibit irregular cell growth(992)(993) and microbial invasion(994)(995) causes of cancers(992)(993) and infection and inflammation(994)(995) respectively. in adrenocortical function and behavour, it also regulated the levels of cortisol(996), induced by over production of serotonin cause of hormone imbalance(997).
See phytoestrogen in black cohosh
[Phytoestrogen found it balck cohosh showed to occupy the estrogen receptor sites in women body(908), through it antiestrogenic and extrogenic effects(909), to induce hormone balancing may result in improving the chance of ovulation and fertility(910)(911)].
Lecithin is a fat like substance called a phospholipid improved lipid transfer, cholesterol efflux, HDL genesis and and remodeling at the blood-brain barrier (BBB)(998). against cells from oxidation surrounding the brain(999), in reducing psychotic symptoms(1002) such as stress(1000)(1001), and depression(1002).
1. It may raise blood pressure(1003)(1004(1006)
2. Long term usage of large dosage can also cause edema(1004)(1006) and hypokalemia(1004)(1005)(1006).
3. Overdose can be toxic(106), in inducing rhabdomyolysis or myoglobinuria(1006).
1. Glycyrrhizic acid
2. Licochalcone A
3. Licochalcone B
10. Glycyrrhetinic acid
11. 11-deoxyglycyrrhetinic acid
Licorice's phytochemicals, especially glycyrrhizin, have shown efffectively in ameliorated insulin resistance(1059)(1061)(1063)(1064), hyperglycemia(1059)(1060), dyslipidemia(1059)(1063) and oxidative stress(1064) in fructose-induced metabolic syndrome(1059)(1061)(1063) in animal(1059)(1060)(1061)models, probably through its interference of the development of visceral obesity(1064) and cellular derailments that are responsible for the development of metabolic syndrome(1062), anti inflammatory(1062), antioxidant(1062) and an associated with a decrease in tissue lipid deposition(1063) effects.
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(1) Adiposity and metabolic dysfunction in polycystic ovary syndrome by Sam S.(PubMed)
(2) A "kiss" before conception: triggering ovulation with kisspeptin-54 may improve IVF by Young SL.(PubMed)
(3.) Androgen hyperfunction and excessive heterosexual hair growth in women, with special attention to the polycystic ovarian syndrome by Lunde O1.(PubMed)
(4) Expression of anti-Müllerian hormone in letrozole rat model of polycystic ovary syndrome by Du DF1, Li XL, Fang F, Du MR.(PubMed)
(5) [Serum levels of anti-muller hormone in women with polycystic ovary syndromeand healthy women of reproductive age].[Article in Bulgarian] by Parahuleva N, Pehlivanov B, Orbecova M, Deneva T, Uchikova E.(PubMed)
(6) [Current opinions on the etiology and pathophysiology of hirsutism].[Article in Polish] by Krysiak R1, Kedzia A, Okopień B.(PubMed)
(7) The clinical evaluation of hirsutism by Somani N1, Harrison S, Bergfeld WF.(PubMed)
(8) Polycystic ovary syndrome and insulin: our understanding in the past, present and future by Mayer SB1, Evans WS, Nestler JE.(PubMed)
(9) Association of mean platelet volume with androgens and insulin resistance in nonobese patients with polycystic ovary syndrome by Dogan BA1, Arduc A2, Tuna MM1, Karakılıc E1, Dagdelen I1, Tutuncu Y1, Berker D1, Guler S1.(PubMed)
(10) Approach to the patient: contraception in women with polycystic ovary syndrome by Yildiz BO1.(PubMed)
(11) Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS): a significant contributor to the overall burden of type 2 diabetes in women by Talbott EO1, Zborowski JV, Rager JR, Kip KE, Xu X, Orchard TJ.(PubMed)
(12) Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in Slovak women with polycystic ovary syndrome and its relation to metabolic and reproductive abnormalities by Figurová J1, Dravecká I, Javorský M, Petríková J, Lazúrová I.(PubMed)
(13) Role of Insulin Sensitizers on Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome: A Meta-Analysis by Thethi TK1, Katalenich B2, Nagireddy P3, Chabbra P4, Kuhadiya N5, Fonseca V1.(PubMed)
(14) Acne in hirsute women by Lumezi BG1, Pupovci HL1, Berisha VL1, Goçi AU2, Gerqari A3.(PubMed)
(15) Obesity and polycystic ovary syndrome by Naderpoor N1, Shorakae S, Joham A, Boyle J, De Courten B, Teede HJ.(PubMed)
(16) Polycystic ovary syndrome: a complex condition with psychological, reproductive and metabolic manifestations that impacts on health across the lifespan by Teede H1, Deeks A, Moran L.(PubMed)
(17) Metabolic Evidence of Diminished Lipid Oxidation in Women With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome. by Whigham LD1, Butz DE2, Dashti H3, Tonelli M3, Johnson LK1, Cook ME2, Porter WP4, Eghbalnia HR5, Markley JL6, Lindheim SR7, Schoeller DA8, Abbott DH9, Assadi-Porter FM10.(PubMed)
(18) Risk of endometrial, ovarian and breast cancer in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis by Barry JA1, Azizia MM1, Hardiman PJ2.(PubMed)
(19) Risk of cancer among women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a Danish cohort study by Gottschau M1, Kjaer SK2, Jensen A1, Munk C1, Mellemkjaer L3.(PubMed)
(20) Polycystic ovary syndrome: metabolic consequences and long-term management by Carmina E1.(PubMed)
(21) Arterial stiffness is increased in asymptomatic nondiabetic postmenopausal women with a polycystic ovary syndrome phenotype by Armeni E1, Stamatelopoulos K, Rizos D, Georgiopoulos G, Kazani M, Kazani A, Kolyviras A, Stellos K, Panoulis K, Alexandrou A, Creatsa M, Papamichael C, Lambrinoudaki I.(PubMed)
(827a) Diet and nutrition in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS): pointers for nutritional management by Farshchi H, Rane A, Love A, Kennedy RL(PubMed)
(828) The optimal diet for women with polycystic ovary syndrome? by Marsh K, Brand-Miller J.(PubMed)
(1059) Glycyrrhizin ameliorates insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia and oxidative stress in fructose-induced metabolic syndrome-X in rat model by Sil R1, Ray D, Chakraborti AS.(PubMed)
(1060) Ameliorative effects of glycyrrhizin on streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats by Sen S1, Roy M, Chakraborti AS.(PubMed)
(1062) Phytoestrogens and the metabolic syndrome by Jungbauer A1, Medjakovic S.(PubMed)
(1063) Glycyrrhizic acid improved lipoprotein lipase expression, insulin sensitivity, serum lipid and lipid deposition in high-fat diet-induced obese rats by Eu CH1, Lim WY, Ton SH, bin Abdul Kadir K.(PubMed)
(1064) Lipoprotein lipase expression, serum lipid and tissue lipid deposition in orally-administered glycyrrhizic acid-treated rats by Lim WY1, Chia YY, Liong SY, Ton SH, Kadir KA, Husain SN.(PubMed)