Kyle J. Norton(Scholar, Master of Nutrients), all right reserved.
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
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Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.
Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome
Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome is defined as endocrinologic diseases among reproductive-age women caused by undeveloped follicles clumping on the ovaries that interferes with the function of the normal ovaries associated with a high risk for metabolic disorder(1) as resulting of enlarged ovaries(2), leading to hormone imbalance(excessive androgen and anti-müllerian hormone (AMH) )(1)(3)(4)(5), induced Hirsutism(6)(7), reproductive disorder(10(12)), risks of type 2 diabetes(9)(10)(11), metabolic syndrome(10)(12) and early cardiovascular disease(8)(13), acne(10)(14), endometrial cancer(18)(19),weight gain and obesity(15)(16)(17). The syndrome effects over 5% of women population or 1 in 20 women.
Unfortunately, according to studies, women with PCOs after the reproductive age, are associated to continuously increase risk of type II diabetes, with no increasingaltered glucose tolerance(20), CVD and hypertension(21).
The prevention and management In Herbal Medicine
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is unpreventable in Western medicine. Early diagnosis and treatment may reduce risk of its complications, including infertility, metabolic syndrome, obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, stroke, etc.
Reduce fat intake less than 30% of total calories with a low proportion of saturated fat and high in fiber from predominantly low-glycaemic-index-carbohydrate foods for patients with PCOs(827a). Calorie intake should be distributed between several meals per day with restricted intake of snacks and drinks(828).
The Fertility Herb: White willow
White willow is also known as salix alba in herbal medicine, native to Europe and western and central Asia, used in traditional medicine as pain reliever(1007)(1008), anticancer(1009)(1010), antimicrobial(1013), antioxidant(1014)(1015), anti-inflammatory(1011)(1012) and fertility enhancing herb(1016).
1, Antiestrigenic effects
White willow processes antiestrigenic effects(1017) by blocking proliferation in hypersensitive cells (1018) which cause estrogenic diseases, including breast cancer(1019) and metabolism imbalance(1020) diseases, such as obesity and diabetes(1021).
2. Salicylic acid
Salicylic acid, a chemical compound converted from salincin found abundantly in white willow has shown to process anti acne(1022)(1023) one of many symptoms of PCOs) effects, probably through its antioxidant activity(1026) in blocking elevated production of sebum by hyperactive sebaceous glands and blockage of the follicle(1022). According to Telemark Hospital, the acid may also be beneficiary for increased the clinical pregnancy rate when used conjunction with vitro fertilisation (IVF)/intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI)(1024) and protective against fetal losses(1025), through its anti antithrombotic property(1025). The synthetic version of salicylic acid has also shown to consisting aspirin's cardioprotective effects through its antithrombotic and anti-inflammatory actions(1027).
3. Immune system
The antioxidant(1028)(1029) and anti inflammatory(1030)(1031) effects of white willow enhance immune system fighting against microbial invasion and guarding our body DNA integrity(1033) against irregular cell growth(1032)(1033) through inhibiting the effect of intermediate enzymes and other mechanisms(1027)
d. Vitamin C
Natural vitamin polypeptide C white willow found in white willow not only is found to consist the weight loss property(See the weight loss vitamin C)[
Vitami C found abundantly in red clover has shown strong evidneces epidemiologically in reducing weight loss for obese population, espexially for obese women with PCOs.
See The weight loss vitamin C for more details
[Vitamin C and other nutrients deficiency not only is associated to the risk of Obesity(807) but also enhances the risk of lipids, inflammation and insulin resistance(808).
According to the research team at Universidad Autónoma de Querétaro, there is an associated link between Obesity and Zinc and vitamins A and C concentration in in women from rural Mexico, in a fasting blood sample analysis (809).
Although genetic susceptibility to obesity is associated with gene polymorphisms affecting biochemical pathways which also impacted by specific foods and nutrients. According to Dr. Johnston CS., vitamin C depletion is associated to positively related to body mass, individuals with adequate vitamin C status oxidize 30% more fat during a moderate exercise bout than individuals with low vitamin Cstatus(810)
Vitamin C, the protective effect against obesity
Endothelial dysfunction has found to be associated to the incidence of obesity(811). The study of 76 healthy subjects (50 men and 26 women aged 21-45 years) obese subject, showed a positive effect of vitamin Cand indomethacin in reduced oxidative stress contributed to endothelial dysfunction in human obesity(812).
In the evaluation of the potential inhibitory activity on α-glucosidase and pancreatic lipase by Citrus spp. fruits of Spanish origin, grapefruit, contained higher contents of phytochemicals such as vitamin C, is found to have a great value for nutrition and treatment of diet-related diseases(813).
L-Ascorbic acid in the study, whether would facilitate the anti-obesity effects of chitosan and psyllium husk in vivo, showed addition of vitamin C in diet influenced the reduction in body weight gain and food efficiency ratio, and the increase in total fecal weight and fecal fat excretion in guinea pigs fed a high-fat diet(814)]
but also improves the immune function in fighting against the forming of free radicals(1034) and foreign invasion(1035) but also increases the blood flow to the reproductive organ(1036)(1037)(1038) through reducing oxidant stress, increasing NO bioavailability(1037) of which may reduce risk sexual libido(1038) and enhance the chance of conception(1039)(1040)(1041).
1. Risk of anaphylactic reaction to patients with a history of allergy to salicylates(1042).
2. Over dose of white willow may cause digestive disorder such as nausea and stomachache(1044)
3. Do not use the herb(1043)
a. If you are aspirin allergy/sensitivity,
b. If you are taking anticoagulants or "blood thinners," and
c. On children with flu-like symptoms or Reye's syndrome.
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(1) Adiposity and metabolic dysfunction in polycystic ovary syndrome by Sam S.(PubMed)
(2) A "kiss" before conception: triggering ovulation with kisspeptin-54 may improve IVF by Young SL.(PubMed)
(3.) Androgen hyperfunction and excessive heterosexual hair growth in women, with special attention to the polycystic ovarian syndrome by Lunde O1.(PubMed)
(4) Expression of anti-Müllerian hormone in letrozole rat model of polycystic ovary syndrome by Du DF1, Li XL, Fang F, Du MR.(PubMed)
(5) [Serum levels of anti-muller hormone in women with polycystic ovary syndromeand healthy women of reproductive age].[Article in Bulgarian] by Parahuleva N, Pehlivanov B, Orbecova M, Deneva T, Uchikova E.(PubMed)
(6) [Current opinions on the etiology and pathophysiology of hirsutism].[Article in Polish] by Krysiak R1, Kedzia A, Okopień B.(PubMed)
(7) The clinical evaluation of hirsutism by Somani N1, Harrison S, Bergfeld WF.(PubMed)
(8) Polycystic ovary syndrome and insulin: our understanding in the past, present and future by Mayer SB1, Evans WS, Nestler JE.(PubMed)
(9) Association of mean platelet volume with androgens and insulin resistance in nonobese patients with polycystic ovary syndrome by Dogan BA1, Arduc A2, Tuna MM1, Karakılıc E1, Dagdelen I1, Tutuncu Y1, Berker D1, Guler S1.(PubMed)
(10) Approach to the patient: contraception in women with polycystic ovary syndrome by Yildiz BO1.(PubMed)
(11) Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS): a significant contributor to the overall burden of type 2 diabetes in women by Talbott EO1, Zborowski JV, Rager JR, Kip KE, Xu X, Orchard TJ.(PubMed)
(12) Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in Slovak women with polycystic ovary syndrome and its relation to metabolic and reproductive abnormalities by Figurová J1, Dravecká I, Javorský M, Petríková J, Lazúrová I.(PubMed)
(13) Role of Insulin Sensitizers on Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome: A Meta-Analysis by Thethi TK1, Katalenich B2, Nagireddy P3, Chabbra P4, Kuhadiya N5, Fonseca V1.(PubMed)
(14) Acne in hirsute women by Lumezi BG1, Pupovci HL1, Berisha VL1, Goçi AU2, Gerqari A3.(PubMed)
(15) Obesity and polycystic ovary syndrome by Naderpoor N1, Shorakae S, Joham A, Boyle J, De Courten B, Teede HJ.(PubMed)
(16) Polycystic ovary syndrome: a complex condition with psychological, reproductive and metabolic manifestations that impacts on health across the lifespan by Teede H1, Deeks A, Moran L.(PubMed)
(17) Metabolic Evidence of Diminished Lipid Oxidation in Women With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome. by Whigham LD1, Butz DE2, Dashti H3, Tonelli M3, Johnson LK1, Cook ME2, Porter WP4, Eghbalnia HR5, Markley JL6, Lindheim SR7, Schoeller DA8, Abbott DH9, Assadi-Porter FM10.(PubMed)
(18) Risk of endometrial, ovarian and breast cancer in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis by Barry JA1, Azizia MM1, Hardiman PJ2.(PubMed)
(19) Risk of cancer among women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a Danish cohort study by Gottschau M1, Kjaer SK2, Jensen A1, Munk C1, Mellemkjaer L3.(PubMed)
(20) Polycystic ovary syndrome: metabolic consequences and long-term management by Carmina E1.(PubMed)
(21) Arterial stiffness is increased in asymptomatic nondiabetic postmenopausal women with a polycystic ovary syndrome phenotype by Armeni E1, Stamatelopoulos K, Rizos D, Georgiopoulos G, Kazani M, Kazani A, Kolyviras A, Stellos K, Panoulis K, Alexandrou A, Creatsa M, Papamichael C, Lambrinoudaki I.(PubMed)
(827a) Diet and nutrition in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS): pointers for nutritional management by Farshchi H, Rane A, Love A, Kennedy RL(PubMed)
(828) The optimal diet for women with polycystic ovary syndrome? by Marsh K, Brand-Miller J.(PubMed)
(1009) In vitro anti-proliferative effects of the willow bark extract STW 33-I by Bonaterra GA1, Kelber O, Weiser D, Metz J, Kinscherf R.(PubMed)
(1010) Willow leaves' extracts contain anti-tumor agents effective against three cell types by El-Shemy HA1, Aboul-Enein AM, Aboul-Enein KM, Fujita K.(PubMed)
(1011) Mechanisms involved in the anti-inflammatory effect of a standardized willow bark extract by Khayyal MT1, El-Ghazaly MA, Abdallah DM, Okpanyi SN, Kelber O, Weiser D.(PubMed)
(1012) Amelioration of collagen-induced arthritis by Salix nigra bark extract via suppression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress by Sharma S1, Sahu D, Das HR, Sharma D.(PubMed)
(1013) Antimicrobial effects of Finnish plant extracts containing flavonoids and other phenolic compounds by Rauha JP1, Remes S, Heinonen M, Hopia A, Kähkönen M, Kujala T, Pihlaja K, Vuorela H, Vuorela P.(PubMed)
(1014) The study of interactions between active compounds of coffee and willow (Salix sp.) bark by water extract. Durak A1, Gawlik-Dziki U1.(PubMed)
(1015) Willow bark extract increases antioxidant enzymes and reduces oxidative stress through activation of Nrf2 in vascular endothelial cells and Caenorhabditis elegans by Ishikado A1, Sono Y, Matsumoto M, Robida-Stubbs S, Okuno A, Goto M, King GL, Blackwell TK, Makino T.(PubMed)
(1016) What Your Doctor May Not Tell You About(TM) Getting Pregnant: Boost Your ... By Raymond Chang, Elena Oumano
(1017) antiestrigenic effectsof bee pollen from Cystus incanus and Salix alba as evaluated by the yeast estrogen screen and the micronucleus assay in human lymphocytes by Pinto B1, Caciagli F, Riccio E, Reali D, Sarić A, Balog T, Likić S, Scarpato R.(PubMed)
(1018) Adaptive hypersensitivity to estrogen: mechanisms and clinical relevance to aromatase inhibitor therapy in breast cancer treatment by Santen RJ1, Song RX, Zhang Z, Kumar R, Jeng MH, Masamura S, Lawrence J Jr, MacMahon LP, Yue W, Berstein L.(PubMed)
(1019) Transcriptional implications of intragenic DNA methylation in the oestrogen receptor alpha gene in breast cancer cells and tissues by Shenker NS1, Flower KJ2, Wilhelm-Benartzi CS3, Dai W4,5, Bell E6, Gore E7, El Bahrawy M8, Weaver G9, Brown R10, Flanagan JM11.(PubMed)
(1020) Sex hormone imbalances and adipose tissue dysfunction impacting on metabolic syndrome; a paradigm for the discovery of novel adipokines by Zhang H, Sairam MR.(PubMed)
(1021) Metabolic Balance for Maximum Health 6/06 June 6, 2006 - - + Juvenon Health Journal Vol. 5 No. 6, June 2006
(1022) [Use of organic acids in acne and skin discolorations therapy].[Article in Polish]by Kapuścińska A1, Nowak I1.(PubMed)
(1023) Rapid treatment of mild acne with a novel skin care system containing 1%salicylic acid, 10% buffered glycolic acid, and botanical ingredients by Bhatia AC, Jimenez F.(PubMed)
(1024) Do acetyl salicylic acid and terbutaline in combination increase the probability of a clinical pregnancy in patients undergoing IVF/ICSI by Hanevik HI1, Friberg M, Bergh A, Haraldsen C, Kahn JA.(PubMed)
(1025) Efficacy of three different antithrombotic regimens on pregnancy outcome in pregnant women affected by recurrent pregnancy loss by Giancotti A1, La Torre R, Spagnuolo A, D'Ambrosio V, Cerekja A, Piazze J, Chistolini A.(PubMed)
(1026) Clinical evidence on the efficacy and safety of an antioxidant optimized 1.5% salicylic acid (SA) cream in the treatment of facial acne: an open, baseline-controlled clinical study by Zheng Y1, Wan M, Chen H, Ye C, Zhao Y, Yi J, Xia Y, Lai W.(PubMed)
(1027) Molecular targets of aspirin and cancer prevention by Alfonso L1, Ai G2, Spitale RC3, Bhat GJ2.(PubMed)
(1028) Effects of salicylic acid and putrescine on storability, quality attributes andantioxidant activity of plum cv. 'Santa Rosa' by Davarynejad GH1, Zarei M1, Nasrabadi ME1, Ardakani E1.(PubMed)
(1029) Salicylic acid promotes seed germination under high salinity by modulatingantioxidant activity in Arabidopsis by Lee S1, Kim SG, Park CM.(PubMed)
(1030) An in vivo study examining the antiinflammatory effects of chamomile, meadowsweet, and willow bark in a novel functional beverage by Drummond EM1, Harbourne N, Marete E, Jacquier JC, O'Riordan D, Gibney ER.(PubMed)
(1031) Inhibition of proinflammatory biomarkers in THP1 macrophages by polyphenols derived from chamomile, meadowsweet and willow bark by Drummond EM1, Harbourne N, Marete E, Martyn D, Jacquier J, O'Riordan D, Gibney ER.(PubMed)
(1032) Willow bark extract (BNO1455) and its fractions suppress growth and induce apoptosis in human colon and lung cancer cells by Hostanska K1, Jürgenliemk G, Abel G, Nahrstedt A, Saller R.(PubMed)
(1033) In vitro anti-proliferative effects of the willow bark extract STW 33-I. by Bonaterra GA1, Kelber O, Weiser D, Metz J, Kinscherf R.(PubMed)
(1034) Comprehensive study on vitamin C equivalent antioxidant capacity (VCEAC) of various polyphenolics in scavenging a free radical and its structural relationship by Kim DO1, Lee CY.(PubMed)
(1035) Structure, mechanism and regulation of an artificial microbial ecosystem forvitamin C production by Zou W1, Liu L, Chen J.(PubMed)
(1036) Melatonin and vitamin C increase umbilical blood flow via nitric oxide-dependent mechanisms by Thakor AS1, Herrera EA, Serón-Ferré M, Giussani DA.(PubMed)
(1037) Tetrahydrobiopterin, L-arginine and vitamin C act synergistically to decrease oxidant stress and increase nitric oxide that increases blood flow recovery after hindlimb ischemia in the rat by Yan J1, Tie G, Messina LM.(PubMed)
(1038) Protective role of ascorbic acid to enhance reproductive performance of male rabbits treated with stannous chloride by Yousef MI1.(PubMed)
(1039) Efficacy of vitamin C and ethanolic extract of Sesamum indicum in promoting fertility in male Wistar rats by Ashamu E1, Salawu E, Oyewo O, Alhassan A, Alamu O, Adegoke A.(PubMed)
(1040) Vitamin C--the primate fertility factor? by Millar J1.(PubMed)
(1041) Promoting extracellular matrix remodeling via ascorbic acid enhances the survival of primary ovarian follicles encapsulated in alginate hydrogels by Tagler D1, Makanji Y, Tu T, Bernabé BP, Lee R, Zhu J, Kniazeva E, Hornick JE, Woodruff TK, Shea LD.(PubMed)
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